Here is a link to a good article from a reliable source that applies only some medical terminology, it is meant to be understood by the general population:
Here is a link to an article from a good source that applies more medical terminology and is a scientific research publication:
Please reflect on how both forms of written communication matter:
Who is the audience?
How much time does the reader want to devote to the article?
How will the reader use the information?
Below is an information page from the American Lung Association:
How are articles different from information pages?
How we abstract meaning from articles
There are scientific journals where research is published and there are news articles that tell us about the published research.
Sources of news articles in science may come from:
Time Magazine, National Geographic, Science Daily, Scientific American, Science News, and many other forms of media.
It is critical to look for reliable sources of information since there are many misleading articles out there. The writer of a article could be misled or misinformed and not know that their sources are unreliable. It is quite difficult to parse through the streams of information and find the truth, this is why it is good to check the references in articles and look for peer reviewed articles, then see what other information sources are saying.
How data is analyzed in science
Some of the elements in statistical analysis:
Statistical analysis is the science of collecting data and uncovering patterns and trends, after collecting data you can analyze.
(in a statistical test) the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, H0 is the commonly accepted fact; it is the opposite of the alternate hypothesis.
Hypothesis test has a null (H0) and an alternative hypothesis (H1)
The Chi-Square Test gives a "p" value
The chi-squared statistic is a single number that tells you how much difference exists between your observed counts and the counts you would expect if there were no relationship at all in the population.
"p" is the probability the variables are independent.
Who writes articles and why
Scientific articles may be written by professional journalists and also active scientists such as students, researchers and professors.
This is media helps people in the field communicate new findings with other people in the field.
Science Journals have many parts:
Funding for studies
It is common for scientific research to be funded by corporations so it helps to see who the researchers are getting paid by. Research is supposed to be non-biased even when it is funded by a corporation.
Since the Bayh Dole act of 1980, it has been legal for corporations to fund research in universities and non profit organizations and then benefit from the technologies and patents that are developed. The funding that is given to the universities and organizations from taxes may also be used to conduct research that will benefit private corporations. It is possible for there to be a conflict of interest if one's university received funding from a corporation while it is legal for the public funding for the university to be used for the benefit of the corporation. This Act is meant to help the developments that are found in universities be put to good use. If a university develops new technology but does not have the equipment to mass produce the technology, while a corporation does, the patent can be handed over to the corporation for use.
Types of studies
Click on the terms to learn more:
Case study: looking at situations and finding parallels
Randomized Clinical Trail: people divided by chance into groups
Double blind study: In a single blind study, the participants in the clinical trial do not know if they are receiving the placebo or the real treatment. In a double-blind study, both the participants and the experimenters do not know which group got the placebo and which got the experimental treatment.
Meta Analysis: what other related research already exists
Things to consider:
Number of people in the Sample Group, the Sample Size
Number of trials: how many times the methods are repeated
How to find good sources
The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM)
American Lung Association or American Heart Association
Look up the latest citation guidelines, they change sometimes
Respiratory system Terminology
Rhin/o Nose Rhinitis (inflammation of nose)
Reconstruction Rhinoplasty (surgical reconstruction of nose)
“voice box”* Laryngotomy, Laryngectomy (cutting into, surgically removing the larynx)
“windpipe” Tracheotomy, tracheostomy (temporary and permanent openings)
Lung air passageways Bronchoscopy (looking into the bronchi)
Breath, air, lung Tachypnea, dyspnea, apnea (accelerated, difficult/painful, cessation of breathing)
Pulmo/o Lung Pulmonary artery
-ptysis Spitting (coughing)
Hemoptysis (spitting or coughing up blood from lungs)