Annuals vs Perennials
Monocots vs Dicots
Types of Plant Life
Xeriphates: Plants such as cacti, that are adapted to an arid environment.
Mesophytes: Plants adapted and survive in an environment with a moderate amount of water.
Hydrophytes: Plants constantly exposed to water (aquatic plants).
The leaf of a plant serves several important functions. Leaves are the chief organs of photosynthesis, a process in which plants are capable of converting light energy into organic food. Most leaves are arranged on the stem in such a way as to receive maximum sunlight and cast minimum shadows on other leaves. Leaves are the major organs responsible for gas exchange between the plant and its surrounding atmosphere. The gases typically move through small openings in the leaf known as stomata or stomates. Water, in a vapor form, also passes through these openings, a process known as stomatal transpiration.
The stomata are openings in the epidermis surrounded by two specialized epidermal cells, the guard cells, which by changes in shape bring about the opening and closure of the pore. The guard cells are normally kidney-bean shaped cells that contain chloroplasts.
The stomata may be located on the upper leaf surface only, lower leaf surface only, or both the upper and lower leaf surfaces.
Number and distribution of stomata vary considerably if grown under different environmental conditions, such as in a dry field or a moist greenhouse. On the other hand, the sizes of stomata are fairly constant for species.
Monocots typically have approximately a 1:1 ratio of stomata on the upper and lower epidermis.
Dicots typically have the greatest number of stomata
on the lower epidermis, with stomata often absent
on the upper epidermis.
Plant Self- Defense
Plants were first aquatic, then there were mosses
Bryophytes : the non-vascular plants
Gymnosperms and conifers
And then Angiosperms
How cacti adapt
formerly Cruciferae, the mustard family of flowering plants, cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, napa cabbage, turnip, and rutabaga, horseradish, radish, and white mustard.
A process in which humans consciously select for or against particular features in organisms. For example, the human may allow only organisms with the desired feature to reproduce or may provide more resources to the organisms with the desired feature.
potato (Solanum tuberosum); eggplant (S. melongena); tomato (S. lycopersicum); peppers (various Capsicum species); tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum and N. rustica); belladonna (Atropa belladonna); the poisonous jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and nightshades: britannica.com
also called Leguminosae, pea family of flowering plants (angiosperms), about 20,000 species of trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs and is worldwide in distribution, soybeans, garden peas, peanuts, and alfalfa
also called Umbelliferae, parsley, carrot, celery, parsnip, and fennel, anise, dill, coriander, caraway, and cumin
Plant taxonomy is how each plant is categorized into a phylogenetic tree, each species has a domain, kingdom, phylum, class, a family, a genus, and a unique species.
Some plants make flowers and seeds and some do not
We will start with familiar plants
WHy are plants connected to insects?
When we think about plants it is vital to also think about insects and their relationships with plants. Some insects eat plants while some eat the insects that eat plants.
As we learn how the different species coexist we can learn what environment to foster within our garden.
Some plants attract pollinators and can strengthen our gardening efforts.
The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία (etumología), itself from ἔτυμον (étumon), meaning "true sense or sense of a truth", and the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of".
Etymology of the word entomology
ology- The study of
Why we need plants
Plants are important for the planet and for all living things.
Plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen from their leaves, which humans and other animals need to breathe.
Living things need plants to live - they eat them and live in them.
Plants help to clean water too.
When plants eat insects
FLower to Fruit to Seed
Plants that have flowers are called angiosperms
attract pollinating insects such as bees, butterflies, birds and bats to the flowers. Such creatures aid in fertilization
look like small leaves, they protect the flower before it blooms and help maintain the structure by keeping the flower in place
The stem that holds the flower up, the stalk, the flower is at the top of the peduncle
the thicker area at the bottom of the flower that holds its organs
Carpel or Pistil:
female part of the plant, located at the center of the bloom, contains the stigma, style and ovary.
located at the base of the flower and has seeds inside known as ovules that turn into fruit.
the long stalk that supports the stigma.
located at the tip of the pistil, the part of the flower that's sticky and collects pollen, pollen initiates fertilization so that seeds can be created.
There are many types of stigma:
the male part of a flower, produces male reproductive cells, located on both sides of the pistil.
Stamen has two parts:
the head of the stamen, produces pollen.
the stalk attached to the flower that holds the anther.
When pollinating insects, such as bees and butterflies, go to the flower for pollen, they also visit the stigma and fertilize the flower.
The plan for the year in botany
August 3 to August 7
What is Botany? How has it developed and how do we use the knowledge?
August 10 to August 14
August 17 to August 21
Flower part and word etymology
August 24 to August 28
The importance of plants and insects
August 31 to September 4
Plant Families: Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Iridaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae
September 8 to September 11
Plant Families: Brassicas, Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apiaceae
September 14 to September 18
Plant adaptation and change
September 21 to September 25
Vascular plants, plant structure and function
September 28 to October 2
Plant nutrition and light needs
School Break: October 7 to October 16
October 19 to October 23
More plant parts: tubers, runners, corms, seed pods
October 26 to October 30
Plant propagation, pollen formation
November 2 to November 6
November 9 to November 13
November 16 to November 20
Garden design, vermiculture
November 23 to November 27: Break
December 1 to December 4
Beneficial insects and pests
December 7 to December 11
Exam and review
December 14 to December 18
Discussion Circles, ways to build community
December 21 to January 5: Winter Break
January 7 to January 8
Ways to use plants: medicinal, protein, preserves, milk replacement
January 11 to January 15:
Ways to use plants: plant proteins, flour, sugars, starches
January 18: Off
January 19 to January 22
Plant Scientists and Explorers
January 25 to January 29
Medicinal Research in Plants
February 1 to February 5
Careers in plant science
February 8 to February 12
Community garden discussion
February 15: Off
February 16 to February 19
Ways plants bring health: shade and oxygen
February 22 to February 25
March 1 to March 5
Where food currently comes from
March 8 to March 12
Outsourcing and export economies
March 15 to March 19
The value of a local food shed
March 22 to April 2: Spring Break
April 5 to April 9
Herbicides and pesticides
April 12 to April 16
Current event discussion
April 19 to 23
Forest and Brush Fires
April 26 to April 30
Funding school and community gardens, grant writing
May 3 to May 7 Exam
May 10 to May 14
College preparedness, plant biology college curriculum
May 17 to May 21
Being involved in our communities, how to look for opportunities
May 24 to May 27
Discussion and review, presentations
Nodes and internodes
Bud is the place for new growth, node is where leaves come out, internode is the stem between the leaves:
Some plants have aerial roots that come out of their nodes:
Parts of a flower
Next week we will go over this in more depth
Types of root structures
look like onions, they have an area for growth at the top and roots growing from the bottom. Examples of bulb plants: daffodils and tulips.
look like bulbs but they have growth from the bottom, it is called a basal plate.
Examples include: Gladiolus, crocus, and crocosmia
are horizontal underground stems which puts out lateral shoots, new plants grow from the root system. Examples: asparagus, ginger, irises, lily of the valley, cannas, turmeric, and sympodial orchids.
have eyes, they are a thickened underground part of a stem or rhizome that can grow at many points, we call those points eyes, the potato is a classic example, there are many flowers that have tubers including the cyclamen, caladium, dahlia, daylily, and peony.
Some plants reproduce by spreading stolons, strawberry is an example
We will be online for the first 9 weeks
What do we learn in botany?
How do we use it?
How do botanists classify plants?
How do plants work?
How can knowledge of plants help us build community?
WHat do we learn in botany?
In this class we learn about the classification of plants, every field of study has a vocabulary that helps people talk about what they are doing and what they see.
Botany is the study of plants and how they contribute to the ecosystem, the environment, and the biodiversity of their community.
Taxonomy is how we classify organisms, if we want to buy a packet of seeds it is important to know what to buy or how to look for the seed. Each plant has a species name and the way their name is organized is called taxonomy.
Plants are classified according to whether or not they have seed, the types of root structures, the way they grow and what they produce.
Mosses and ferns grow from spores instead of from seed
Rhizomes and tubers are a form of asexual reproduction
Angiosperms have flowers
Gymnosperms do not have flowers, they have exposed seed instead of fruit
Monocotyledons have parallel veins and petals in groups of three
Dicotyledons have veined leaves and petals in groups of four or five
Vascular plants have xylem and phloem to carry water and sugars
Non-vascular plants are much smaller, no vessels to carry resources.
Some plants are very good at growing and outcompeting everything else, we call these plants invasive.
Kudzu vine is an example of an invasive species.
Types of GYMNOSPERMS
Angiosperms produce flower
Gymnosperms have odd seed container such as pine cones
Around 550 species of conifer trees exist worldwide and make up the largest group of gymnosperms. Conifers may be evergreen or deciduous
Examples of evergreen conifers include:
Their cones may be hard and dry, such as with pine and spruce trees, or fleshy, like with junipers.
Some conifers lose their needles or scaly leaves in winter:
Conifers tend to inhabit colder and drier habitats around the world.