We use nutrients to produce cells
We use cells to build tissues and organs, and self repair
Macro and micronutrients in our food
Components in food that the body needs to grow, develop, and repair itself
proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, nutrients that living beings need to maintain health.
the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products
Complex Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides)
a carbohydrate made up of many simple sugars linked together, a polymer of monosaccharides, examples are starch and glycogen
Simple sugar (monosaccharide)
A carbohydrate made of a single sugar subunit, and example is glucose
A complex animal carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate that is not digestible by humans
Micronutrients are nutrients including vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health.
an inorganic chemical element required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance. Examples are calcium, iron, potassium, and zinc
an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
a substance that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food, certain amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals.
Essential Amino Acids
eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must obtain from food
Nutrients build and repair tissues
Nutrients are used to replace and maintain the cells that do the work of tissue repair
A disease characterized by thinning bones
A disease that is characterized by abnormally high blood-sugar levels
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar
Breaking foods down
a protein that speeds up the rate of a metabolic reaction
an inorganic substance such as a metal-ion that is required to activate an enzyme
a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin, required to activate the enzyme
the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes accelerate reaction by reducing the activation energy
a compound or molecule that an enzyme binds to and on to which it acts
the part of the enzyme that binds to substrates
any chemical reaction that breaks down complex molecules into more simple molecules
any chemical reaction that combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
all biochemical reactions occurring in an organism including reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new structures
Food has calories that fuel energy
is the ability to do work including the building of complex molecules.
Cells turn energy from food into ATP: AdenosineTriPhosphate
ATP is like money in the cell world
Where does ATP come from?
To produce ATP we need oxygen and the help of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, oxygen comes from plants and other producers, we help producer when we breathe out carbon dioxide
is the process of using oxygen to produce ATP in mitochondria
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
What about excess calories?
Work Inside the Cell Requires Energy
How the images are made
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow