What is a forest?
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.
The forest ecosystem is very important.
There are three major types of forests, classed according to latitude:
Latitude: the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
Longitudes: are therefore imaginary circles that intersect the North and South Poles, and the Equator. Half of a longitudinal circle is known as a Meridian. Meridians are perpendicular to every latitude. Unlike, latitudes, there is no obvious central longitude.
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
Temperate Coniferous Forest:
Boreal (Taiga) Forest:
microbiology: a glimpse
mushrooms are a big part of the ecosystem
The Etymology of Phylogenetic: The term phylogenetic, or phylogeny, derives from the two ancient greek words φῦλον (phûlon), meaning "race, lineage", and γένεσις (génesis), meaning "origin, source".
fungal life cycle
fungi foster an egalitarian network of RESOURCES and Data Transfer (communication) between plants of various species that keep the planet alive
Protozoa: is a single-celled organism that is a eukaryote (which are organisms whose cells contain membrane-bound organelles and nuclei). Most have flagella to move around.
Nematodes are among the most abundant animals on Earth. They occur as parasites in animals and plants or as free-living forms in soil, fresh water, marine environments, and even such unusual places as vinegar, beer malts, and water-filled cracks deep within Earth's crust. Called roundworm: unsegmented cylindrical body, tapering at both ends
How Fungi decompose stuff
Isotopes: Carbon-12, Carbon-13, and Carbon-14 are used for Carbon Dating, used to find the age of prototaxites
Prototaxites: is a genus of terrestrial fossil fungi dating from the Late Silurian until the Late Devonian periods, approximately 430 to 360 million years ago
more on the yew tree mentioned in the video
The type of tree that scientists thought the fossils represented instead of prototaxites.
One of the oldest wooden artefacts ever discovered by modern humans was made from Yew – a spearhead found in Essex dated at approximately 450,000 years of age.
numbers are in millions of years
Disease etymology: Middle English (in the sense ‘lack of ease; inconvenience’): from Old French desaise ‘lack of ease,’ from des- (expressing reversal) + aise ‘ease.’ "discomfort, inconvenience, distress, trouble,"
Monoculture: the cultivation of a single crop in a given area.
Pathogen: a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two (replicates).
binary fission= Bacterial reproduction
Bacteria: binary fission and asexual reproduction
Bacteriophage Viruses infecting bacteria.
a virus that parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it.
Phage etymology: to eat
plant immune system
Gene for gene model modifies genetics
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Is Gondwana the same as Pangea?
- The reformed Gondwanan continent was not precisely the same as that which had existed before Pangaea formed; for example, most of Florida and southern Georgia and Alabama is underlain by rocks that were originally part of Gondwana, but this region stayed attached to North America when the Central Atlantic opened.
- Pangaea, Gondwanaland, Laurasia and Tethys. a large supercontinent that existed existed ~225 million years ago at the .. between the close of the Paleozoic and start of the Mesozois (at the Permo-Triassic).
- The oldest of the supercontinents is called Rodinia and was formed during Precambrian time some one billion years ago.
- Another Pangea-like supercontinent, Pannotia, was assembled 600 million years ago, at the end of the Precambrian. Present-day plate motions are bringing the continents together once again.
nothing visible is permanent,
not even the position of the continents
- Biologists suspect we're living through the sixth major mass extinction. ...
- Late Devonian, 375 million years ago, 75% of species lost. ...
- End Permian, 251 million years ago, 96% of species lost. ...
- End Triassic, 200 million years ago, 80% of species lost. ...
- End Cretaceous, 66 million years ago, 76% of all species lost.
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow