Chapters 11 and 12
Gregory Mendel’s research on genetics.
What is a Punnett Square and how do we use it?
Natural selection and adaptation: insects and plants adapting to chemicals, how organisms find ways to survive.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
An allele that is visible in the organism only if to copies of the allele are present
an allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele
Having two different alleles
Having two identical alleles
The visible or measureable features of an individual.
The particular genetic makeup of an individual
Specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome (they are haploid)
Half the genetic information compared to most cells, one copy of every chromosome
Having two copies of every chromosome
The two copies of each chromosome in a diploid cell.
A specialized type of cell division that generated genetically unique haploid gametes
An early stage of development in which maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
The principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis
Stem Cell Technology to help Same Sex couples reproduce: In vitro Gametogenesis
A cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism.
An early stage of development reached when a zygote undergoes cell division to form a multicellular structure.
An individual who is heterozygous for a particular gene of interest, and can pass the recessive allele to offspring.
A diagram used to determine the probabilities of offspring having particular genotypes b looking at the genotypes of the parents
CRISPR (/ˈkrɪspər/) (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)
Gene editing technology.
The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has gone to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing.” That method, formally known as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing but often called simply CRISPR, allows scientists to precisely cut any strand of DNA they wish.
CF is Recessive, Huntington's Disease is Dominant
With an autosomal dominant trait, if one parent has it, the children have a 50% chance of inheriting that gene, if they have that gene, they have the trait.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly
Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait and recessive.
The recessive gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome.
Males inherit one affected X chromosome from the mother and, less commonly, females inherit an affected X chromosome from both mother and father experience the disease.
Females who inherit an affected X chromosome from either mother or father are carriers for the disease.
More genetic complexities
Paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
X Linked trait
a phenotype determined by an allele on an X chromosome
Heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between the dominant and the recessive genes.
Wavy hair is an example
Both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
An example is Blood Type
The three blood types are A, B, and O
The possible combinations that we inherit from parent are:
OO, AO, BO, AB, AA, and BB
Both parental alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
O is recessive
So if you are blood type A, you may be AA homozygous or AO heterozygous
Different blood types have different surface markers, not every blood type is compatible:
Genes move with individuals
a change in the frequency of an allele within a population over time
As individuals move around we can observe genetic drift
Something happens leaving only a few individuals to reproduce
The new population might not fully represent the ancestral population
Tasmanian devils and population bottleneck
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow