Living organisms maintain balance by sensing their internal and external conditions and making adjustments.
endotherm vs ectotherm
An ectotherm (reptile/amphibian) relies primarily on its external environment to regulate the temperature of its body. Endotherms (birds) are able to regulate their body temperatures by producing heat within the body.
Our organs work together to help homeostasis
Hierarchy in biology: Our cells work together to form organs and organs work together to form organisms.
Tissue: and organized collection of a single type of cell type working to carry out a specific function.
Organ: a structure made up of different tissue types working together to carry out a common function.
Organ System: a set of cooperating organs within the body.
Physiology: the study of the way living organism's physical parts function
Homeostasis: the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes.
Organs that help with homeostasis
In mammals, the main organs involved with homeostasis are:
Thermoregulation: the maintenance of a relatively stable internal body temperature.
Vasoconstriction: the reduction in diameter of blood vessels which helps retain heat.
Vasodilation: the expansion in diameter of blood vessels, which helps to release heat.
Hypoxia: the state of low oxygen concentration in the blood
Acclimatization: the process of physiologically adjusting to an environmental change over a period of time. Generally reversible.
Blood SUgar Homeostasis
Glycogen: an energy storing carbohydrate found in liver and muscle.
Pancreas: an organ that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, as well as digestive enzymes
Insulin: a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar
Glucagon: a hormone produces by the pancreas that causes an increase in blood sugar.
Hormone: a chemical signaling molecule that is released by a cell or gland and travels through the bloodstream to exert an effect on target cells.
Osmolarity: the concentration of dissolved solutes in blood and other bodily fluids
Osmoregulation: the maintenance of relatively stable volume, pressure, and solute concentration of bodily fluids, especially blood.
Kidney: an organ involved in osmoregulation, filtration of blood to remove wastes, and production of several important hormones
Hypothalamus: the coordinator region of the brain, responsible for a variety of physiological functions.
Sensor: a specialized cell that detects specific sensory input like temperature, pressure, or solute concentration
Effector: a cell or tissue that acts to exert a response on the basis of information relayed from a sensor
Feedback loop: a pathway that involves input from a sensor, a response via an effector, and detection of the response by the sensor
Hearts in other creatures
Human organ systems
Osmosis maintains homeostasis
Plants have many adaptations that help with homeostasis
Ways animals maintain homeostasis
Being able to hold your breath for 20 minutes while having fin like wings and mastering the physics of coming out of the icy water
Huddling to stay warm since heat moves from hot to cold
Changing blood circulation to hold your breath much longer while collapsing your lungs to sustain the deep water pressure
Evolving antifreeze proteins
Learning to be part of a school of fish
A hydrosphere is the total amount of water on a planet. The hydrosphere includes water that is on the surface of the planet, underground, and in the air. A planet's hydrosphere can be liquid, vapor, or ice.
Bodies of Water:
The water moves within a water cycle:
Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land.
About 2.1% of all of Earth's water is frozen in glaciers. 97.2% is in the oceans and inland seas 2.1% is in glaciers 0.6% is in groundwater and soil moisture less than 1% is in the atmosphere less than 1% is in lakes and rivers less than 1% is in all living plants and animals.
Rocks and minerals
Soil Particles in a Soil Sample
The Properties of the soil matters to plants and animals
The geology of a Biome will affect the Life there
Rocks are weathered and ERODED to make soil
Rocks release phosphorous
ATP is ADENOSINE TriPhosphate
ATP, Adenosine Triphosphate, is made by mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, ATP is the currency used for cell work. As a living being absorbs or eats phosphorous, it breaks down during digestion, and is used to assemble ATP. We need oxygen to release ATP during the electron transport chain part of the process of ATP production. Rocks release phosphorous as they erode, it goes into plants, and then goes into the food web.
The Nitrogen gets there thanks to the nitrogen cycle
78% of the air we breathe is nitrogen, however, the nitrogen that we breathe in does not work for our cells to build proteins, we need to get it from our plants or creatures that ate plants.
Nitrogen follows a cycle:
Healthy soil is full of life
Red Wiggler Worms help soil bacteria and fungi reproduce as they break down plant matter and produce fertilizer.
Under the Surface
Pockets of Freshwater under the Sea
Ice COres can show past gas LEVELS in the atmosphere
Everything is made of atoms, Molecules are made of Atoms
Living Beings Coexist: Symbiosis describes how
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts are powerhouses
Living beings grow through cell division.
stem cells can help regenerate tissues.
Cell growth and cell growth require nutrients
Cells build proteins by reading genetic code
Cells build organelles and then organs
Eukaryotic cells have organelles and a nucleus while prokaryotes do not
Food Webs are NUTRIENT transport chains
The food web of the planet starts with the sea.
WHat we see is influenced by the structures in our eyes
The Color Spectrum
Types of Forests
The Dead Sea
The Dead Sea is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and the West Bank to the west. It lies in the Jordan Rift Valley, and its main tributary is the Jordan River. Its surface and shores are 430.5 metres below sea level, Earth's lowest elevation on land. The Dead Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth, it has 10 times more salt than ordinary seawater, 33.7 percent salt.
The sea is called "dead" because its high salinity prevents macroscopic aquatic organisms, such as fish and aquatic plants, from living in it, though minuscule quantities of bacteria and microbial fungi are present.
Important Biology Vocabulary
biological dead zone
Biological dead zone are hypoxic (low oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, which causes these bodies of water to fail to support the marine life living there.
THE EARTH HAS SLOPE, GRADIENT, AND TOPOGRAPHY
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line. This can be applied to the slope of the earth.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces.
THe structures of the land create different environments
Creatures can fill different ecological niches within a biome.
There will be differences in temperature, salinity, pH, and more.
An example of a creature that lives in a very specific environment that changes frequently is the axolotl in the Anahuac Valley, now Mexico City.
Axolotl live in brackish (semi salty) water in Xochimilco and Lake Texcoco in Mexico City, they are very endangered. They eat mollusks, worms, insect larvae, crustaceans, and some fish.
There are 17 different species of Axolotl, locally they are called achoque, they are salamanders. Salamanders are a type of amphibian, creatures that have an aquatic gill-breathing larval stage followed (typically) by a terrestrial lung-breathing adult stage.
Salamanders stay in water more but they may breathe through their skin or develop lungs. Axolotls stay in the water and don't go through metamorphosis, they develop functional lungs, but retain gills and generally use them to breathe.
There are restoration efforts that help protect the Axolotl.
They only live in one place
Their home went from being a lake, to becoming the Mexica City of Tenochtitlan in 1325, to becoming one of the biggest cities in the world after the lake was drained. There are currently still aquifers under Mexico City and the people drink this aquifer water, so the city is sinking.
MEXICO CITY DURING AZTEC (Mexica) TIMES, YEARS 1324-1430
It was a tricky place to grow food:
Lake Chalco and Lake Xochimilco to the south were freshwater lakes, lakes to the north, Tetzcoco, Xaltocan and Zumpango, were salty.
Axolotl adapted to changing levels of salinity, when floods moved water from salty areas to freshwater areas, many plants and animals would die. There are also aquifers, underground water ways, that feed the lakes.
To overcome the problems of drinking water, Aztec (Mexica or Tenochca Mexica) engineers built a system of dams to separate the salty waters of the lake from the rain water of the effluents.
Aztec (Mexica) communities grew food on Chinampas, strips of land that were made from the fertile soil from the bottom of the lake. They were artificial islands.
People in this region spoke Nahuatl, it is still spoken by about 1.7 million people today. The people in this region identified as Mexica or Tenochca Mexica, not as Aztec.
Spanish COnquerors drained the lakes
When Spanish Conquistadors went to what is now Mexico City, they destroyed as much of the city as they could and drained the lakes to build a new city on top of the existing city.
This video shows us why and how the region is slowly sinking:
Efforts to protect Axolotl
This conservation effort involves making cough syrup with them :(, you win some, you lose some. Axolotls are very important in medicine, we will learn more about that soon.
Another threat to rivers and lakes is eutrophication, when fertilizers are washed off the land and into the bodies of water.
When there are too many nutrients in a lake or other body of water, generally because of runoff from the land. Excess nutrients cause a dense growth of plant life and death of animal life from lack of oxygen.
The area where the axolotl lives is their habitat, the habitat is part of a biome
A biome includes many habitats and many ecosystems.
A biome may be an ocean, grassland, a forest, a tundra, rainforest, desert.
The Marine Biome covers about 70% of the Earth's surface and is home to more than 230 thousand known species. Marine plants provide over half of the oxygen on Earth. There are separate biomes within the ocean based on depth, temperature, and biodiversity. A coral reef is a biome. Within the coral reef there are different habitats and niches.
Rivers streams, ponds and lakes, and wetlands are fresh water biomes.
Polar regions have tundras, there are less plants, animals need to get food from the ocean or hunt other creatures.
Forests may be full of evergreen trees in colder areas.
Tropical Rainforests get more moisture and humidity, they are close to the equator and are warm, full of life. Important producers of oxygen and many medicinal plants have been discovered there.
A savannah or grassland has low growing plants like grass and flowers.
Deserts are dry, may be hot or cold, very little rain, may drop to below freezing at night and be very hot during the day. Have cacti, grasses, shrubs, some trees.
People are reflecting on the lack of regard for the environment and are speaking up
Greta Thunberg is a Swedish environmental activist who is internationally known for challenging world leaders to take immediate action against climate change.
She was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome/ Autism, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and selective mutism.
In one of her first speeches demanding climate action, Thunberg described the selective mutism aspect of her condition as meaning she "only speaks when necessary." She is now 18 years old.
This week we are learning about how animals and plants interact with each other and survive in their environment. This part of biology is known as population ecology.
The study of ecology includes:
Types of migrations, genetic exchange, and forms of symbiosis population distribution patterns, food chains, population growth pattern, why we need pollinators, and how species spread.
An ecosystem involves all living and non-living components in an area, how energy flows and matter cycles through an environment.
Atmosphere: this includes the wind speed and direction, humidity, light intensity and quality, precipitation and temperature.â
Biotic Factors: These are all the living organisms in the environment, including their interactions.
Abiotic factors: elements that are not alive: soil, rocks, mountains, rain, clouds
Living organisms interact with each other in their habitat, they influence matter by walking around and moving things around.
Habitat: the natural environment in which a creature lives including the biotic and abiotic factors.
Each organism occupies a niche, an ecological niche of an organism is their function in the ecosystem: where they live, what organisms they interact with, how they respond t changes in the health of the environment.
Tolerance rage: each species has a tolerance range, this is their comfort zone, at what point they move to another environment.
What is pH and why does it matter?
The term pH refers to the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, it stands for potential hydrogen.
Substance that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are acids.
The more hydrogen ions they release the more acidic they are.
Substances that release hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are bases.
Alkalinity increases with the concentration of hydroxyl ions.
Each pH unit represents a 10-fold change in concentration.
Contaminants CONTRIBUTE to Acid Rain
Acid rain: rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes. The main cause is the industrial burning of coal and other fossil fuels, the waste gases from which contain sulfur and nitrogen oxides, which combine with atmospheric water to form acids. -Oxford
Normal, clean rain has a pH value of between 5.0 and 5.5, which is slightly acidic. When rain combines with sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides produced from power plants and automobiles the rain becomes much more acidic. Typical acid rain has a pH value of 4.0.
ph and Environmentalism
Acids are substance that break apart in water to form a hydrogen ion.
Acids react with carbonates to give off carbon dioxide
Interesting ph facts
âSome plants tell us the pH of their soil by expressing different colors of flowers.
Venom is Acidic
A sting from a bee may be painful for many reasons, pH of bee venom is 5.0-5.5
Formic acid in ants has a pH of 2 to 3
The pH of a river is not the same as the pH of the rain
When it rains or we use water for irrigation, water goes downhill, down the gradient of the earth
There is a connection between the water that moves across land and the pH of bodies of water such as lakes, rives, ponds, and the seaâ
Water moves through a watershed, the way the surface water drains down from ridges to basins.
coral Reef Health
Through this class we will learn how environmental change affects the ecosystem of a coral reef and explain what coral bleaching is.
We may then practice our language skills by reading an article, participating in a class presentation, and writing down an explanation of coral bleaching.
Please write down an example of energy transfer
Examples of energy transfer in biology:
Food web or trophic levels, sound waves, electrical currents in electric eels, photosynthesis,
Trophic level visual:
Sound Wave Energy Transfer
Review what coral is
Please read the following article:
Who lives there?
Coral Reef Food Web:
WHat is coral bleaching?
Bleaching occurs when warm ocean water stresses corals to the point that they expel the tiny algae, known as zooxanthellae, that normally live inside their tissues. The algae provide the corals with most of their food, as well as their color. If the heat stress is lessened soon enough, the coral can recover.
Please write an explanation for coral bleaching using the information from class.
From the deep sea to the seashore
The average ocean depth is 2.3 miles, or 12,100 feet, or
3,688 meters, most of the hydrothermal vents that have been studied have been more than 2000 meters below the surface of the ocean.
These are some modern day deep sea creatures:
Geological TIme Scale
The source of genetic diversity is a mystery
It is possible that fungal spores came from space on an asteroid or meteor, fungi spores are able to survive in the vacuum of space. The fungi were possibly eaten by Earth creatures and more genetic code was introduced.
Insects and fellow land dwelling arthropods, crustaceans, and annelids
Worms are annelids, they don't have a backbone, and have many segments, no legs, and have been on land Earth about 500 million years. Worms started their existence in the ocean, the polychaetes are sea worms.
Sea Scorpions might have been the first creatures to leave the ocean and adapt to land about 500 million years ago.
Eurypterid scorpions, they had chitin as a protein.
Ancient crustaceans, sanctacaris, seem to be related to scorpions and then much later, spiders.
About 420 million years ago during the Devonian period we see land dwelling millipedes, they are some of the first land dwelling creatures along with centipedes, pillbugs/ rollie pollies (the only land dwelling crustaceans), and scorpions.
380 million years ago
Ants are part of the order hymenoptera and are thought to have evolved about 210-160 million years ago before blooming plants, there are ants preserved in amber that are 190 million years old.
At that time there were coniferous trees, the gymnosperms, which are wind pollinated. There were wasps before bees, though both are part of hymenoptera.
Plants with flowers, the angiosperms, were first seen during the Cretaceous Period about 145 million years ago.
This is when bees, moths, and butterflies emerged, moths are seen in fossil records first, more butterflies are seen during the Eocene Period about 40 million years ago.
Cambrian explosion and Extinction
Cambrian Extinction was about 488 million years ago, there have been many mass extinctions
Interesting Ancient creatures:
Trilobites: survived about 4 mass extinctions:
Trilobites used chitin as a protein, just like mushrooms, the shell was chitin and calcite
Ostracoderms: armoured, jawless, fishlikevertebrates that emerged during the early part of the Paleozoic Era (542–251 million years ago)
Late Cambrian times had eel-like jawless fish called the conodonts, and small mostly armoured fish known as ostracoderms
When plants got bigger and absorbed more Carbon Dioxide, there was an Ice Age
Devonian period was 419 million years ago (mya), there were Devonian Forests 360 mya
A 375-million-year old fossil. Tiktaalik roseae, better known as the "fishapod," is a 375 million year old fossil fish which was discovered in the Canadian Arctic in 2004.
Bones that show the beginning of legs
During the permian period 298 million years ago, we see stem mammals:
Dimetrodon is a stem mammal, they have teeth that look more like canines.
Permian-Tirassic Extiction: 252 million years ago
Chicxulub crater after impact, 66 million years ago, the meteor is thought to have been over 9 miles wide
Mammal- Like Reptiles (stem mammals) learned to burrow and fill ecological niches
Synapsids were transitional animals that began to behave more like mammals and survived the mass extinction that killed many large reptiles.
Land masses are part of tectonic plates that move and form different patterns, there was a time when animals could walk from modern day Australia to Canada without worrying about an ocean being in the way.
Each Era has Periods and Epochs:
today's Sea to Land transition
The shores of the Earth have coral reefs:
The red areas are coral reef zones
Coral Reef ecosystems are at risk of being destroyed and many scientists are working to make things better
Another ecosystem seen along shores: Mangroves
World map that shows where mangroves live:
Mangroves are torn down for agriculture and shrimp farming, when the mangrove forests are destroyed, there is more land erosion and destruction of property for people along the coast, there are people working on preservation and restoration of these vital ecosystems.
WHat is the oldest Species on the planet?
The Sea Sponge from Phylum Porifera
Another ANcient Creature is The Comb Jellie
ctenophora: Comb jellie, not quite a jellyfish: Ctenophora comprise a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide. They are notable for the groups of cilia they use for swimming, and they are the largest animals to swim with the help of cilia.
Cnidaria: Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are a predominantly marine species
Jellyfish Biology: fertilized jellyfish eggs develop into larval planulae, they become polyps, bud into ephyrae and then transform into adult medusae.
Coral Biology: Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc).
The first coral reefs date from the early Ordovician of about 500 million years ago, and their form at the time differed significantly from that of corals today, which, following, the mass extinction 240 million years ago at the end of the Permian period, first appeared in the middle of the Triassic period.
Brachiopods are marine animals belonging to their own phylum, Brachiopoda, of the animal kingdom. Modern brachiopods occupy a variety of sea-bed habitats ranging from the Tropics to the cold waters of the Arctic and, especially, Antarctic.
Geologic Time Scale
Today We get to see ancient fossils
The science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world.
Every species is organized by Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
The three Domains are Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Archaea
Bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have a nucleus
Eukaryotes have a nucleus, this group includes plants, animals, fungi, and many single celled eukaryotes
Archaea are very ancient, some live in environments that few living beings can thrive in
Are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia.
Cyanobacteria are very ancient life forms, perhaps only Archaea are older.
The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
An unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
The amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Types of life
Found to have existed 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes
Bateria may have:
whip-like appendages used to move around, like arms
short, hair-like appendages extending from the surface, used to stick to surfaces
sticky coating, used to stick to surfaces
Types of bacteria
are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
are referred to as cocci (singular: coccus),
an example is Streptococcus
Cylindrical, capsule-shaped bacteria
are named bacilli (singular: bacillus), bacteria that make yogurt: Lactobacillus bulgaricus
are called spirilla (singular: spirillum) Lyme disease and syphillis are caused by this type of bacteria
Cell division in prokaryotes is called binary fission, asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies, cells transfer genetic information by making contact.
Both Archaea and Bacteria can reproduce through binary fission.
are all bacteria bad?
Some but not all bacteria are pathogens: a disease causing agent
Some bacteria are purely beneficial and help with symbiosis: the relationship in which two different organisms live together, often interdependently.
Converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use to grow
The other domain of prokaryotic life, tend to live in extreme environments
Grouped according to where they live (pg 371):
Some Archaea live in hydrothermal vents
In deep sea vents, heated fluids rise to the surface through openings in the seafloor. Hydrothermal fluid temperatures can reach 400°C (750°F) or more, but the archaea do not boil under the extreme pressure of the deep ocean.
As they pour out of a vent, the fluids encounter cold, oxygenated seawater, causing another, more rapid series of chemical reactions to occur. Sulfur and other materials precipitate, or come out of solution, to form metal-rich towers and deposits of minerals on the seafloor.
The sea floor is an anaerobic environment, no oxygen
Who lives there
It is theorized that this is where life on Earth originated
Deep sea mining might be connected to cobalt mining
Cobalt is used for phones and computer batteries, some companies are interested in mining it from the deep sea.
Alternatives to cobalt are needed so companies don't consider deep sea mining a viable option.
Most Cobalt currently comes from Democratic Republic of Congo
DR Congo produces 60% of the world's supply of cobalt. The mineral is used to produce lithium-ion batteries used to power electric cars, laptops and smartphones. However, the extraction process has been beset with concerns of illegal mining, human rights abuses and corruption.
What are alternatives to cobalt?
A good battery is able to store current and transfer it, conduct heat, and cool quickly.
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow