Micro organism taxonomy
Each living organism that is studied by scientists is given a species name and is placed into a phylogenetic tree. It is estimated that only about 15% of species have been studied, may of them cannot be seen by people.
Each organism is classified by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
The domains are
Archaea: Very ancient microscopic beings that we will study soon
Eukarya: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
WHat are some of the microorganisms that exist?
Protozoans: unicellular eukaryotes
Stentors are Eukaryotes
Diatoms are Eukaryotes and also Protists
Protist: is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Diatoms are Phytoplankton, single-celled, have a cell wall of silica.
Diatoms are mainly photosynthetic autotophs; a few are heterotrophs and can live in the absence of light as long as an appropriate organic carbon source is available.
Autotrophs: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from the sunlight through photosynthesis
Plankton is the base of the global food chain, The trillions of microorganisms absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
This community provides food for the ocean.
Scientist study diatoms to study climate change
Micro Universe Behavior
Cyanobateria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, they live in a wide variety of moist soils and in water.
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes.
(“layered rocks”) are rocky structures made by photosynthetic cyanobacteria, some are 3.5 billion years old.
Cyanobacteria, Diatoms and other plankton are eaten
The word “plankton” comes from the Greek for “drifter” or “wanderer.” An organism is considered plankton if it is carried by tides and currents, and cannot swim well enough to move against these forces. Some plankton drift this way for their entire life cycle. Others are only classified as plankton when they are young, but they eventually grow large enough to swim against the currents. Phytoplankton is photosynthetic and autotrophic while zooplankton is a heterotrophic animal.
Fossil Fuels for Gasoline Come from Plankton
Energy is needed for movement
Energy is the capacity to do work, cellular work includes building complex molecules and moving substances in and out of the cell.
Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules (Food)
Potential Energy: stored energy (Food)
Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion or movement, (muscle movement, digestion breaks down food and releases energy)
Heat: the kinetic energy generated by random movements of molecules or atoms (transfer of energy from food to muscle to environment
Some organisms get energy from the sun and the air while some get it from food
Autotroph: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from sunlight through photosynthesis
Heterotroph: eats other beings: animals, insects
Photosynthesis: the process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy rich molecules using carbon dioxide and water
Plants take sunlight and make sugars, glucose sugar is chemical energy.
Carbon Fixation: the conversion of inorganic carbon CO2 into organic forms, sugars
The sugar glucose goes to:
Chloroplast: the organelle in the plant cell where photosynthesis occurs
Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photons of light energy during photosynthesis
Sunlight has Photons: packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy
A photon is both a wave and a particle
Light Energy: the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation
ATP, Adenosinetriphosphate: The molecules that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
Energy moves around in a trophic cycle
Trophic Cycle: A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Trophic Cascade: When something that a large predator does affects the rest of the food chain. An ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and nutrient cycling.
Algae are part of the food chain in salt and freshwater
A simple, typically aquatic plant of a large group that includes the seaweeds and many single-celled forms. Algae used to be considered protists but are now considered eukaryotes. Cyanobacteria, diatoms, algae, and millions of species live together in what we call plankton.
Algae might be the next source of fuel
NMSU is making algae jet fuel
Fuel is part of energy transfer
interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear.
Non-Biological Nano Bots
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow