let's learn more about Types of cells
Adult Stem Cells/ Somatic Stem cells: Not specialized yet
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and to develop into the three primary germ cell layers of the early embryo during gastrulation and therefore into all cells of the adult body, but not extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta.
Multipotent Stem Cells
A cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Cells from embryonic blastocyst, a few day old fetus, they get these from "leftover" IVF clinic embryos.
Totipotent Stem Cells
Can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. These are embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization.
Types of cells
âRed blood cell and white blood cell
Stem cell technology for skin recovery
Stem Cell treatment for vision
âEpithelial cells line the stomach the intestines, our whole digestive tract, they have structures that help them absorb nutrients
What all of these cells have in common is the cell membrane, membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer an have channels that allow certain things in and out of the cell.
Extracellular: Outside of the cell
Intracellular: Inside the cell
Cell Membrane Review
Cholesterol in cell membranes
Around 25-30% of a cell membrane has cholesterol. Cholesterol can fit into spaces between phospholipids and prevent water-soluble molecules from diffusing across the membrane. Cholesterol helps cells keep their shape and stay flexible.
Membrane proteins do a series of jobs for the cell, receptor proteins relay signals between the cell's internal and external environments. Transport proteins move molecules and ions across the membrane.
Are channels in the cell membrane, the fluid mosaic model, that allow things in and out of the cell.
Aquaporins are water channels for the cell
Are like antennae, they signal other cells and communicate with the outside of the cell, they may receive hormones or other messages
Extend across the cell membrane and serve to identify the cell. The immune system uses these proteins to tell friendly cells from foreign invaders. They are as unique as fingerprints.
These proteins and elements are all part of the
A mosaic of components âincluding phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydratesâthat gives the membrane a fluid character.
Cell Transport Types
the spontaneous, no energy needed, movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. From higher concentration to lower concentration to equalize the solution on both sides.
Moves with the flow, from high concentration to low concentration
Movement with the flow/ with the concentration gradient, from high concentration to low, with the help of a transport protein.
A movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input, so no ATP needed, using a specialized channel protein in the cell membrane.
Movement against the regular gradient flow, from low concentration to high concentration.
Movement of ions or molecules through a cell membrane using specialized proteins with enzymes, using ATP.
Bringing things in, like large molecules, the cell will form a vesicle to bring something into the cell.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
The molecules that will enter the cell need to have a special signal so the cell can identify them
Taking in fluids, cell drinking
Forming a vesicle to transport a molecule
âSodium Potassium Pump
A form of active transport, transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
Very important in the function of neurons so action potentials can be fired
âTypes of cell transport:
âmeasure of the osmotic pressure gradient
Lower concentration of water, more solute molecules, makes cells shrink like pickles
Less concentrated solution, more solute inside the cell, water will enter the cell and the cell might burst
concentration (of let's say salt) inside and outside the cell are equal
We can see osmosis with an eggsperiment
The ten major systems of the body
Parts of the brain
How the heart works
The respiratory system
Cell Specialization in Plants and anmals
Author: Jazmin Gannon
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