Forest Biology Concept chart
Ecosystem: Living and non living parts of a food web or habitat
Species: a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
Biodiversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Keystone Species: a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.
Wolves as a keystone species:
We will cover some types of forest animals
Monotremes are egg laying mammals
There are only five living monotreme species: the duck-billed platypus and four species of echidna (also known as spiny anteaters).
All of them are found only in Australia and New Guinea.
The platypus lives in the deciduous forests of Australia:
The average lifespan of an echidna in the wild is estimated around 14–16 years.
Synapsids, the mammal like reptiles branched out
Into monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals
The first order of synapsids to arise in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, around 310 Million years ago, were the pelycosaurs, making up around 70% of all the tetrapod genera alive in the Early Permian. The pelycosaurs are split into six families:
The skeleton of Ophiacodon, the largest and best known of the earliest pelycosaurs, Benton and Harper, 1997
Scientists in India have discovered a new species of crab that lives entirely on trees in the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot.
It is found on islands across the Indian Ocean, and parts of the Pacific Ocean as far east as the Gambier Islands and Pitcairn Islands
SOme of the ancient forests of the world
Forest Spotlight: Tarkine FOrest
Tarkine Forest, Tasmania, Australia:
Where the Tasmanian Devil Lives
Other Tasmania Dweller: The Quoll
Some marsupials stayed in the Americas, remember Gondwanaland?
MONOTREMES ARE OLDER THAN MARSUPIALS
Remember our Genetics Vocabulary
Gene flow: the movement of alleles from one population to another, which may increase the genetic diversity of a population.
Speciation: the genetic divergence of populations, a barrier to gene flow, leading overtime to reproductive isolation and the formation of a new species
Reproductive Isolation: mechanisms that prevent mating and gene flo between members of a different species
Founder Effect: the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: the principle that in a non-evolving population, both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next
Living creatures change over time, they speciate, they become a new species and pass on different traits
The world around a species many change the species
Creatures will change their eating habits and behavior to reduce competition, mate with others that are changing their behavior, and end up becoming a new species
The adaptation is how species survive mass extinctions
None of this information is meant to disagree with any religion, creatures are just finding ways to thrive and be part of biodiversity, they adopt new survival skills and technologies as they gain more experience.
Charles Darwin studied Finches in the Galapagos
FOrest Creature Concept map
Every forest around the world has a species that fills each niche, you might have a different type of bear, or a different type of big cat, animals that hibernate, animals that live on trees, or creatures that live on the ground:
See the parallels in every ecosystem, there are patterns within a functional food web.
Tapirs live in wetlands, forests, savanna, and rain forests, and they have a range that includes Mexico, Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia's Malaya and Sumatra.
30 million years ago was the Oligocene Epoch:
The Dingo is a dog from Australia, one of the few non-marsupial mammals:
They can be found in temperate forests, alpine moorlands, arid deserts, wetlands, and even tropical forests.
Birds of Prey:
Then we have Arthropods
Some Insect Classifications within Taxonomy
Orthoptera: straight leathery wing, grasshoppers, katydid, cockroach
Lepidoptera: Butterflies and moths, important pollinators
Coleoptera: Beetles, means hard shell wing
Siphonaptera: Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera. As external parasites of mammals and birds, they live by consuming the blood of their hosts.
Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, ants
Sir david attenborough
English broadcaster and natural historian.
Insects are Ancient
Spiders live everywhere
Forest Water Cycle
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow