Energy Transfer within a Trophic SYstem
This week is for review since we have been taking about energy transfer and trophic cycles.
Etymology of the word trophic:
late 19th century: from Greek trophikos, from trophē ‘nourishment’, from trephein ‘nourish’.
trophic means to nourish
Eating gives us energy
If we eat too much then we store the energy and gain weight. In the United States, 36.5 percent of adults are obese. Another 32.5 percent of American adults are overweight
calories in/ Calories out
So if you eat a burger it take an hour of high energy exercise to burn the calories, otherwise you will store some of the energy
A full meal is over 1,000 calories.
A McDonald's meal with a shake has
1,680 calories and 74 grams of fat
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
1,000 calories or kilocalorie (Kcal); a capital C in Calorie means "kilocalorie", the Calorie is what we see in food labels
Carbohydrates give us calories
We need some, in moderation
The Glycemic Index (GI) is a relative ranking of carbohydrate in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates with a low GI value (55 or less) are more slowly digested, absorbed and metabolised and cause a lower and slower rise in blood glucose and, therefore usually, insulin levels.
Food that we eat gets broken down into subunits
a complex animal carbohydrate, made up of liked chains of glucose molecules, that store energy for short-term use
a type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long term use
Energy is extracted from food by mitochondria
The process is called aerobic respiration
A series of reactions that occur in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP
There are many parts to the process:
a series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units; glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is the first step of both aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Citric Acid Cycle
a set of reactions that takes place in mitochondria and helps extract energy (in the form of high-energy electrons) from food; the second step in aerobic respiration
Electron Transport Chain
a process that takes place in mitochondria and produces the bulk of ATP during aerobic respiration; the third step in aerobic respiration
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
Where ATP is made, membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), forming it from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
The molecule that cells use to power energy-requiring functions, the cells "currency"
a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP. Fermentation produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration.
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow