Chapters 11 and 12
Gregory Mendel’s research on genetics.
What is a Punnett Square and how do we use it?
Natural selection and adaptation: insects and plants adapting to chemicals, how organisms find ways to survive.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
An allele that is visible in the organism only if to copies of the allele are present
an allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele
Having two different alleles
Having two identical alleles
The visible or measureable features of an individual.
The particular genetic makeup of an individual
Specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome (they are haploid)
Half the genetic information compared to most cells, one copy of every chromosome
Having two copies of every chromosome
The two copies of each chromosome in a diploid cell.
A specialized type of cell division that generated genetically unique haploid gametes
An early stage of development in which maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
The principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis
Stem Cell Technology to help Same Sex couples reproduce: In vitro Gametogenesis
A cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism.
An early stage of development reached when a zygote undergoes cell division to form a multicellular structure.
An individual who is heterozygous for a particular gene of interest, and can pass the recessive allele to offspring.
A diagram used to determine the probabilities of offspring having particular genotypes b looking at the genotypes of the parents
CRISPR (/ˈkrɪspər/) (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)
Gene editing technology.
The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has gone to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing.” That method, formally known as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing but often called simply CRISPR, allows scientists to precisely cut any strand of DNA they wish.
CF is Recessive, Huntington's Disease is Dominant
With an autosomal dominant trait, if one parent has it, the children have a 50% chance of inheriting that gene, if they have that gene, they have the trait.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly
Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait and recessive.
The recessive gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome.
Males inherit one affected X chromosome from the mother and, less commonly, females inherit an affected X chromosome from both mother and father experience the disease.
Females who inherit an affected X chromosome from either mother or father are carriers for the disease.
More genetic complexities
Paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
X Linked trait
a phenotype determined by an allele on an X chromosome
Heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between the dominant and the recessive genes.
Wavy hair is an example
Both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
An example is Blood Type
The three blood types are A, B, and O
The possible combinations that we inherit from parent are:
OO, AO, BO, AB, AA, and BB
Both parental alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
O is recessive
So if you are blood type A, you may be AA homozygous or AO heterozygous
Different blood types have different surface markers, not every blood type is compatible:
Genes move with individuals
a change in the frequency of an allele within a population over time
As individuals move around we can observe genetic drift
Something happens leaving only a few individuals to reproduce
The new population might not fully represent the ancestral population
Tasmanian devils and population bottleneck
GENETIC SEQUENCES IN CHROMOSOMES ARE CALLED GENES
plural noun: genes
A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and determines some characteristic of the offspring.
"proteins are coded directly by genes"
A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
Variation of a genetic trait
An allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
An allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
Physical genetic expression
Internal genetic expression
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
CHROMOSOMES GO THROUGH CHANGES TO CREATE A VARIETY OF GAMETES
a Sex cell
occurs between prophase I and metaphase I of meiosis, some genes are swapped to create unique gametes.
Gamete production is meiosis.
A gamete is a mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Austrian Monk and botanist, he observed peas to see the traits that were inherited by their offspring.
The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
It is named after Reginald C. Punnett.
The diagram is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
Guinea Pig Fur Color
More COmplex Genetic COmbination
a breeding experiment between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in a single given trait. The P generation organisms are homozygous for the given trait.
A cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits. According to Mendel's statement, between the alleles of both these loci there is a relationship of completely dominant - recessive traits.
let's learn more about Types of cells
Adult Stem Cells/ Somatic Stem cells: Not specialized yet
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and to develop into the three primary germ cell layers of the early embryo during gastrulation and therefore into all cells of the adult body, but not extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta.
Multipotent Stem Cells
A cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Cells from embryonic blastocyst, a few day old fetus, they get these from "leftover" IVF clinic embryos.
Totipotent Stem Cells
Can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. These are embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization.
Types of cells
âRed blood cell and white blood cell
Stem cell technology for skin recovery
Stem Cell treatment for vision
âEpithelial cells line the stomach the intestines, our whole digestive tract, they have structures that help them absorb nutrients
What all of these cells have in common is the cell membrane, membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer an have channels that allow certain things in and out of the cell.
Extracellular: Outside of the cell
Intracellular: Inside the cell
Cell Membrane Review
Cholesterol in cell membranes
Around 25-30% of a cell membrane has cholesterol. Cholesterol can fit into spaces between phospholipids and prevent water-soluble molecules from diffusing across the membrane. Cholesterol helps cells keep their shape and stay flexible.
Membrane proteins do a series of jobs for the cell, receptor proteins relay signals between the cell's internal and external environments. Transport proteins move molecules and ions across the membrane.
Are channels in the cell membrane, the fluid mosaic model, that allow things in and out of the cell.
Aquaporins are water channels for the cell
Are like antennae, they signal other cells and communicate with the outside of the cell, they may receive hormones or other messages
Extend across the cell membrane and serve to identify the cell. The immune system uses these proteins to tell friendly cells from foreign invaders. They are as unique as fingerprints.
These proteins and elements are all part of the
A mosaic of components âincluding phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydratesâthat gives the membrane a fluid character.
Cell Transport Types
the spontaneous, no energy needed, movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. From higher concentration to lower concentration to equalize the solution on both sides.
Moves with the flow, from high concentration to low concentration
Movement with the flow/ with the concentration gradient, from high concentration to low, with the help of a transport protein.
A movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input, so no ATP needed, using a specialized channel protein in the cell membrane.
Movement against the regular gradient flow, from low concentration to high concentration.
Movement of ions or molecules through a cell membrane using specialized proteins with enzymes, using ATP.
Bringing things in, like large molecules, the cell will form a vesicle to bring something into the cell.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
The molecules that will enter the cell need to have a special signal so the cell can identify them
Taking in fluids, cell drinking
Forming a vesicle to transport a molecule
âSodium Potassium Pump
A form of active transport, transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
Very important in the function of neurons so action potentials can be fired
âTypes of cell transport:
âmeasure of the osmotic pressure gradient
Lower concentration of water, more solute molecules, makes cells shrink like pickles
Less concentrated solution, more solute inside the cell, water will enter the cell and the cell might burst
concentration (of let's say salt) inside and outside the cell are equal
We can see osmosis with an eggsperiment
The ten major systems of the body
Parts of the brain
How the heart works
The respiratory system
Cell Specialization in Plants and anmals
How Cells Divide
Cells divide to produce more identical cells with the same genes, this is how tissues grow and regenerate, this process is called mitosis.
A type of cell division that results in two cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Book Vocabulary Words:
A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.
Genetic makeup of an organism
The physical qualities of an organism including observable or not observable traits
Alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences.
Zooming into DNA
An organized group of different cell types that work together to carry out a particular function. Different types of cells make different tissues.
There are Many Cell Types:
Immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types
Cells are constantly replicating
The process by which a cell reproduces itself; it is normal and essential for growth and healing of tissues
One or more identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication
The specialized region of a chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined
The physical division of a cell into two daughter cells
Stages of mitosis
Cell Division , electron microscopy, we will look at min 6:06 to 8:55
Meiosis: A specialized type of cell division that generates unique haploid gametes. Generates sex cells.
Gamete: specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome, sperm are male gametes, egg are female gametes
Haploid: having only one copy of every chromosome
Exchange of genetic material, new gene combinations are formed on chromatids (recombination), all four haploid daughter cells will be genetically distinct (sister chromatids are no longer identical).
Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells)
Stems cells located in tissues that help maintain and regenerate those tissues
A cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells that make up an early embryo which can differentiate into nearly every cell type in the body
A cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell in the body.
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Cell Death: Apoptosis
WHat proteins are made through DNA Translation?
How can DNA actually code for a trait?
Translated proteins are encapsulated in vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported out of the cell and into the tissues where they are needed.
Different Amino Acids code for Different Traits
Keratin is in many structures
Hair, Feather, Nails, Hooves, Scales, Feathers... a main amino acid is cysteine which has sulphur, what we smell when hair burns.
Most insects have a protein called chitin
Did dinosaurs adapt and become dinosaurs?
Sea Lion Whiskers are made of keratin, they also have more hemoglobin to go deep sea diving and very flexible bones and cartilage for deep sea pressure.
Proteins that carry and store oxygen
Oxygen transport, in red blood cells, made of four peptide/ amino acid chains, some of the amino acids are Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine. There are approximately 3 million hemoglobin molecules in just one red blood cell.
Oxygen storage, in muscles and heart muscles, one poly peptide chain 153 amino acids long
Watch the first few min of this:
Proteins that Help flying Creatures Glow
Photoproteins help animals glow.
Luciferase photoprotein produced by dinoflagellates, red algae
Proteins that keep fish from freezing
a type of fish that produces Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), these proteins contain 37 amino acids
There are different types of AntiFreeze Proteins and other things that help living beings prevent freezing such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in cyanobacteria.
Glowing Ocean Beings
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in sea creatures composed of 238 amino acid residues
Proteins that help birds see magnetic fields
Magnetoreception may be connected to cryptochrome proteins, Cry1, Cry2, Cry4, or magnetite within the animal, Cry1 has 586 amino acids
Proteins that help scavengers eat
Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, blood proteins.
Digestive Enzymes are Proteins.
Proteins are part of snake venom
Proteins constitute 90-95% of venom's dry weight and they are responsible for almost all of its biological effects.
Male and juvenile female platypi possess spurs on each hind leg that are connected to paired venom glands, platypus venom contains 19 different peptide fractions.
Antibodies are Proteins
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses
Genes are replicated as cells Multiply
Cells at Work
DNA is made of nucleic acids or base pairs that are coiled up into chromosomes that live in the nucleus of the cell.
DNA replicates to make more cells and codes for proteins.
Both DNA replication and transcription involve the generation of a new copy of the DNA in a cell.
DNA transcription replicates the DNA into RNA
DNA replication makes another copy of DNA.
DNA Replication and transcription happen inside the nucleus while translation happens outside
mRNA: messenger RNA, single strand, leaves the nucleus to make proteins
tRNA: transfer RNA, helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein by releasing an amino acid
Ribosomes: float in the cytoplasm, help assemble proteins by matching mRNA and tRNA
5' to 3'
There is a 5 Prime and a 3 Prime
Histones are proteins that help organize DNA into coils
Electron Microscope Images
The microscopes we have in class
DNA is too small to see with our class microscopes
WHo discovered it?
Scanning Electron Microscope
DNA: is the molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
DNA exists in the nuclei of most cells, DNA molecules are organized into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of a single long DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. If a single DNA molecule were stretched out it would be 1 to 3 meters long
Nucleotides: the building blocks of DNA
Each has a sugar, a phosphate, and a base, one of four bases
Bases: A, T, C, and G
Thymine (T) Uracil in RNA (U)
The sequence is unique in each person
Double helix: the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together
Hydrogen bonds: or base pairing hold the strands together
Polymer: made up of building block molecules. Biopolymers made of monomers
Genetic Code: the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
DNA Profile: a visual representation of a person's unique DNA sequence
Genome: one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
Amino acids: The building blocks of proteins, there are 20 different amino acids
All amino acids have the same basic core structure but each also has a unique chemical side group. They bind together in linear chain, peptide chain.
Protein: A macromolecule made up of repeating sub-units known as amino acids, which determine the shape and function of a protein. Proteins play critical roles in organisms.
Gene: a sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene expression: the process of using DNA instructions to make proteins
Phenotype: the physical attributes of an organism including observable and internal, non observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences
Regulatory sequence: the part of the gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of a protein produced
Coding Sequence: part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, identity, shape, and function of proteins.
Messenger RNA (mRNA): RNA copy of an original DNA sequence made during transcription
Transcription: Transcription is the first step of DNA based gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Translation: the second stage of gene expression. Translation 'reads' mRNA sequences and assembles the corresponding amino acids to make proteins.
RNA Polymerase: the enzyme that accomplishes transcription. RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a complementary strand or RNA,
Ribosome: the cellular machinery that assembles proteins during the process of translation. checks for a matching codon and anticodon.
Codon: a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
Anti-codon: the complementary side on tRNA that leads to release of an aminoacid
Peptide: a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain
How DNA Makes Protein
How Art Helps us See Biology
Energy Transfer within a Trophic SYstem
This week is for review since we have been taking about energy transfer and trophic cycles.
Etymology of the word trophic:
late 19th century: from Greek trophikos, from trophē ‘nourishment’, from trephein ‘nourish’.
trophic means to nourish
Eating gives us energy
If we eat too much then we store the energy and gain weight. In the United States, 36.5 percent of adults are obese. Another 32.5 percent of American adults are overweight
calories in/ Calories out
So if you eat a burger it take an hour of high energy exercise to burn the calories, otherwise you will store some of the energy
A full meal is over 1,000 calories.
A McDonald's meal with a shake has
1,680 calories and 74 grams of fat
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
1,000 calories or kilocalorie (Kcal); a capital C in Calorie means "kilocalorie", the Calorie is what we see in food labels
Carbohydrates give us calories
We need some, in moderation
The Glycemic Index (GI) is a relative ranking of carbohydrate in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates with a low GI value (55 or less) are more slowly digested, absorbed and metabolised and cause a lower and slower rise in blood glucose and, therefore usually, insulin levels.
Food that we eat gets broken down into subunits
a complex animal carbohydrate, made up of liked chains of glucose molecules, that store energy for short-term use
a type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long term use
Energy is extracted from food by mitochondria
The process is called aerobic respiration
A series of reactions that occur in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP
There are many parts to the process:
a series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units; glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is the first step of both aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Citric Acid Cycle
a set of reactions that takes place in mitochondria and helps extract energy (in the form of high-energy electrons) from food; the second step in aerobic respiration
Electron Transport Chain
a process that takes place in mitochondria and produces the bulk of ATP during aerobic respiration; the third step in aerobic respiration
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
Where ATP is made, membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), forming it from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
The molecule that cells use to power energy-requiring functions, the cells "currency"
a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP. Fermentation produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration.
Micro organism taxonomy
Each living organism that is studied by scientists is given a species name and is placed into a phylogenetic tree. It is estimated that only about 15% of species have been studied, may of them cannot be seen by people.
Each organism is classified by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
The domains are
Archaea: Very ancient microscopic beings that we will study soon
Eukarya: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
WHat are some of the microorganisms that exist?
Protozoans: unicellular eukaryotes
Stentors are Eukaryotes
Diatoms are Eukaryotes and also Protists
Protist: is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Diatoms are Phytoplankton, single-celled, have a cell wall of silica.
Diatoms are mainly photosynthetic autotophs; a few are heterotrophs and can live in the absence of light as long as an appropriate organic carbon source is available.
Autotrophs: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from the sunlight through photosynthesis
Plankton is the base of the global food chain, The trillions of microorganisms absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
This community provides food for the ocean.
Scientist study diatoms to study climate change
Micro Universe Behavior
Cyanobateria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, they live in a wide variety of moist soils and in water.
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes.
(“layered rocks”) are rocky structures made by photosynthetic cyanobacteria, some are 3.5 billion years old.
Cyanobacteria, Diatoms and other plankton are eaten
The word “plankton” comes from the Greek for “drifter” or “wanderer.” An organism is considered plankton if it is carried by tides and currents, and cannot swim well enough to move against these forces. Some plankton drift this way for their entire life cycle. Others are only classified as plankton when they are young, but they eventually grow large enough to swim against the currents. Phytoplankton is photosynthetic and autotrophic while zooplankton is a heterotrophic animal.
Fossil Fuels for Gasoline Come from Plankton
Energy is needed for movement
Energy is the capacity to do work, cellular work includes building complex molecules and moving substances in and out of the cell.
Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules (Food)
Potential Energy: stored energy (Food)
Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion or movement, (muscle movement, digestion breaks down food and releases energy)
Heat: the kinetic energy generated by random movements of molecules or atoms (transfer of energy from food to muscle to environment
Some organisms get energy from the sun and the air while some get it from food
Autotroph: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from sunlight through photosynthesis
Heterotroph: eats other beings: animals, insects
Photosynthesis: the process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy rich molecules using carbon dioxide and water
Plants take sunlight and make sugars, glucose sugar is chemical energy.
Carbon Fixation: the conversion of inorganic carbon CO2 into organic forms, sugars
The sugar glucose goes to:
Chloroplast: the organelle in the plant cell where photosynthesis occurs
Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photons of light energy during photosynthesis
Sunlight has Photons: packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy
A photon is both a wave and a particle
Light Energy: the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation
ATP, Adenosinetriphosphate: The molecules that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
Energy moves around in a trophic cycle
Trophic Cycle: A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Trophic Cascade: When something that a large predator does affects the rest of the food chain. An ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and nutrient cycling.
Algae are part of the food chain in salt and freshwater
A simple, typically aquatic plant of a large group that includes the seaweeds and many single-celled forms. Algae used to be considered protists but are now considered eukaryotes. Cyanobacteria, diatoms, algae, and millions of species live together in what we call plankton.
Algae might be the next source of fuel
NMSU is making algae jet fuel
Fuel is part of energy transfer
interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear.
Non-Biological Nano Bots
We use nutrients to produce cells
We use cells to build tissues and organs, and self repair
Macro and micronutrients in our food
Components in food that the body needs to grow, develop, and repair itself
proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, nutrients that living beings need to maintain health.
the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products
Complex Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides)
a carbohydrate made up of many simple sugars linked together, a polymer of monosaccharides, examples are starch and glycogen
Simple sugar (monosaccharide)
A carbohydrate made of a single sugar subunit, and example is glucose
A complex animal carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate that is not digestible by humans
Micronutrients are nutrients including vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health.
an inorganic chemical element required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance. Examples are calcium, iron, potassium, and zinc
an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
a substance that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food, certain amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals.
Essential Amino Acids
eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must obtain from food
Nutrients build and repair tissues
Nutrients are used to replace and maintain the cells that do the work of tissue repair
A disease characterized by thinning bones
A disease that is characterized by abnormally high blood-sugar levels
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar
Breaking foods down
a protein that speeds up the rate of a metabolic reaction
an inorganic substance such as a metal-ion that is required to activate an enzyme
a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin, required to activate the enzyme
the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes accelerate reaction by reducing the activation energy
a compound or molecule that an enzyme binds to and on to which it acts
the part of the enzyme that binds to substrates
any chemical reaction that breaks down complex molecules into more simple molecules
any chemical reaction that combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
all biochemical reactions occurring in an organism including reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new structures
Food has calories that fuel energy
is the ability to do work including the building of complex molecules.
Cells turn energy from food into ATP: AdenosineTriPhosphate
ATP is like money in the cell world
Where does ATP come from?
To produce ATP we need oxygen and the help of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, oxygen comes from plants and other producers, we help producer when we breathe out carbon dioxide
is the process of using oxygen to produce ATP in mitochondria
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
What about excess calories?
Work Inside the Cell Requires Energy
How the images are made
Cell Biology, more in depth
What is a cell ?
What are some of the types of cells?
What are cells made of and what are the various parts of cells?
How do cells work and what are some possible cell jobs?
Carbon is an atom from the periodic table of elements that is found in organic molecules, it can bond with many atoms at the same time and forms chains that create bigger molecules.
Atoms have neutrons, protons and electrons:
Protons are positively charged subatomic particles in the nucleus of an atom
Neutrons are electrically uncharged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom, neutrons are neutral
Nucleus is the center
Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles, they are smaller than other subatomic particles and exist in a cloud around the nucleus of an atom in, valence shells, they orbit the nucleus
Valence shells are orbits around the nucleus, they can hold a certain number of electrons and the spaces for electrons fill from the inside out.
By looking at how many protons, neutrons, and electrons there are in an atom we can draw Bohr Diagrams.
In the diagram below you can see how many electrons can be held in each valence shell:
Noble gases such as helium and neon have no ability to bond with anything, every spot where a bond could exist is taken up.
Carbon has space for four bonds because the outer valence shell can have eight electrons and carbon has four outer electrons, Neon on the other hand, is all full.
Helium has two outer electrons on a valance shell that can hold two electrons, it cannot bond with anything. Hydrogen on the other hand, has one electron and can bond with one thing, without this, H2O, water, would not be possible and there would be no life as we know it.
Carbon and hydrogen form covalent bonds, this means that they share
electrons and fill their available spaces
In an ionic bond there is an electrochemical attraction between atoms of opposite charges and one atom gives away their electrons, those bonds are stronger and are found in metals.
Many of the foods we eat form ionic bonds, there are alkaline earth metals that we need for proper nutrition, examples are: calcium, sodium, magnesium...
We need salt, just not too much, salt is sodium chloride and has an ionic bond:
Sodium, from salt, is Na on the periodic table of elements, it is an alkali metal, the elements are organized into element families and groups and periods based on their properties
Carbon based macroMolecules
Let's look at some macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
they contain hydrocarbons, chains of hydrogen and carbon:
generally repel water
We need lipids to form phospholipids:
Phospholipids are in the cell membrane of cells:
Cells have a cell membrane to keep contents safe
an organic molecule that is made up of one or more sugars
one carb sugars are monosaccharides
multiple linked saccharides are polysaccharides
and organic molecule made up of linked amino acid subunits,
Proteins are a combination of 21 amino acids, DNA has a code for what amino acids to link and in what order
There are primary, secondary tertiary, and quaternary structures:
organic molecules made up of linked nucleotide subunits
DNA and RNA are Examples of nucleic acids
Inside the cell
Cell Contents are Organelles
tiny cellular structures that perform specific functions within a cell
Click on the organelles to learn more:
The cell nucleus has chromosomes, they are bundles of DNA
Types of cells
cells that have no internal membranes, no organelles
cells with membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
plants, animals, fungi
Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts that photosynthesize
SIngle cell beings
Many living beings are multicellular, here are some single cell beings:
Diatoms, single cell eukaryotes:
they look like glass
they are protozoans
single celled eukaryotes
Fungi, there are single and multicellular eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
How PENICILLIN was discovered
Gram POSITIVE vs gram negative bacteria
Gram staining is a common technique used to differentiate between two groups of bacteria based on cell wall composition
Penicillin targets the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.
Some antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors, they inhibit prokaryotic ribosomes in the bacteria
Ribosomes are needed to produce proteins
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow