Where is the tundra and who lives there?
Exploring thick fur helps people engineer wetsuits:
Tigers: Siberian tigers inhabit the tundra
North of the Tundra is the Arctic
Animals in the tundra stay warm with thick fur, while animals in colder climates might have a layer of blubber.
Blubber: is a thick layer of fat, also called adipose tissue, directly under the skin of all marine mammals.
Blubber covers the entire body of animals such as seals, whales, and walruses—except for their fins, flippers, and flukes.
Blubber an important part of a marine mammal's anatomy.
Biomolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
Monomer: building block
Lipids: fatty acid and glycerol
Continental Drift: the gradual movement of the continents across the earth's surface through geological time.
The big five mass extinctions
The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.
What is Time?
Forest Biology Concept chart
Ecosystem: Living and non living parts of a food web or habitat
Species: a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding.
Biodiversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Keystone Species: a species on which other species in an ecosystem largely depend, such that if it were removed the ecosystem would change drastically.
Wolves as a keystone species:
We will cover some types of forest animals
Monotremes are egg laying mammals
There are only five living monotreme species: the duck-billed platypus and four species of echidna (also known as spiny anteaters).
All of them are found only in Australia and New Guinea.
The platypus lives in the deciduous forests of Australia:
The average lifespan of an echidna in the wild is estimated around 14–16 years.
Synapsids, the mammal like reptiles branched out
Into monotremes, marsupials and placental mammals
The first order of synapsids to arise in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian, around 310 Million years ago, were the pelycosaurs, making up around 70% of all the tetrapod genera alive in the Early Permian. The pelycosaurs are split into six families:
The skeleton of Ophiacodon, the largest and best known of the earliest pelycosaurs, Benton and Harper, 1997
Scientists in India have discovered a new species of crab that lives entirely on trees in the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot.
It is found on islands across the Indian Ocean, and parts of the Pacific Ocean as far east as the Gambier Islands and Pitcairn Islands
SOme of the ancient forests of the world
Forest Spotlight: Tarkine FOrest
Tarkine Forest, Tasmania, Australia:
Where the Tasmanian Devil Lives
Other Tasmania Dweller: The Quoll
Some marsupials stayed in the Americas, remember Gondwanaland?
MONOTREMES ARE OLDER THAN MARSUPIALS
Remember our Genetics Vocabulary
Gene flow: the movement of alleles from one population to another, which may increase the genetic diversity of a population.
Speciation: the genetic divergence of populations, a barrier to gene flow, leading overtime to reproductive isolation and the formation of a new species
Reproductive Isolation: mechanisms that prevent mating and gene flo between members of a different species
Founder Effect: the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: the principle that in a non-evolving population, both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next
Living creatures change over time, they speciate, they become a new species and pass on different traits
The world around a species many change the species
Creatures will change their eating habits and behavior to reduce competition, mate with others that are changing their behavior, and end up becoming a new species
The adaptation is how species survive mass extinctions
None of this information is meant to disagree with any religion, creatures are just finding ways to thrive and be part of biodiversity, they adopt new survival skills and technologies as they gain more experience.
Charles Darwin studied Finches in the Galapagos
FOrest Creature Concept map
Every forest around the world has a species that fills each niche, you might have a different type of bear, or a different type of big cat, animals that hibernate, animals that live on trees, or creatures that live on the ground:
See the parallels in every ecosystem, there are patterns within a functional food web.
Tapirs live in wetlands, forests, savanna, and rain forests, and they have a range that includes Mexico, Central America, South America, and Southeast Asia's Malaya and Sumatra.
30 million years ago was the Oligocene Epoch:
The Dingo is a dog from Australia, one of the few non-marsupial mammals:
They can be found in temperate forests, alpine moorlands, arid deserts, wetlands, and even tropical forests.
Birds of Prey:
Then we have Arthropods
Some Insect Classifications within Taxonomy
Orthoptera: straight leathery wing, grasshoppers, katydid, cockroach
Lepidoptera: Butterflies and moths, important pollinators
Coleoptera: Beetles, means hard shell wing
Siphonaptera: Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera. As external parasites of mammals and birds, they live by consuming the blood of their hosts.
Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, ants
Sir david attenborough
English broadcaster and natural historian.
Insects are Ancient
Spiders live everywhere
Forest Water Cycle
Topics that are connected
FUngi and the Ecosystem
Taxonomy branches for microbiology
FUngal Life Cycle
Inoculation: Spores alight upon a growth medium (or substrate). If conditions are favorable, spores will germinate.
Spore germination: Fine fungal filaments known as hyphae grow from the spores. Compatible hyphae mate to create fertile mycelium.
In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internal cross-walls called “septate hyphae” for example “Aspergillus”, while some other fungi have non-septate hyphae, meaning their hyphae are not partitioned by septa and this type is called “Coenocytic hyphae“
Mushrooms can replace wood in building materials
FUNGI FOSTER AN EGALITARIAN NETWORK OF RESOURCES AND DATA TRANSFER (COMMUNICATION) BETWEEN PLANTS OF VARIOUS SPECIES THAT KEEP THE PLANET ALIVE
SOil Life involves many microorganisms
Protozoa: is a single-celled organism that is a eukaryote (which are organisms whose cells contain membrane-bound organelles and nuclei). Most have flagella to move around.
Biology in Diverse Environments
We have learned about the survival mechanisms of various species in various parts of the world and how DNA influences their offspring.
We will now learn more about the amazing ways in which creatures adapt and thrive as they pass their knowledge and genes along to every new generation.
What better way than to show you some examples of the interesting, the peculiar, the effective, and the marvelous ways in which adaptation takes place.
Just a few examples, there is always more to learn.
First, it would behoove us to learn what a forest even is.
What is a forest?
A forest is a large area dominated by trees. a natural woodland unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (Biotic components) in that area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.
The forest ecosystem is very integrated.
There are three major types of forests, classed according to latitude:
Latitude and Longitude
Latitude: the angular distance of a place north or south of the earth's equator, or of a celestial object north or south of the celestial equator, usually expressed in degrees and minutes.
Longitudes: are therefore imaginary circles that intersect the North and South Poles, and the Equator. Half of a longitudinal circle is known as a Meridian. Meridians are perpendicular to every latitude. Unlike, latitudes, there is no obvious central longitude.
Types of Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
Temperate Coniferous Forest:
Boreal (Taiga) Forest:
A Concept Map of Forest Biology
WHat about Flowers?
These ecosystems are our global treasures
Protecting them and restoring them is in our best interest, simply a favor to ourselves.
Biodiversity: animals moving around and adapting
Allele: Genetic trait
Genetic drift: a change in the frequency of an allele within a population over time
The complexities of evolution
The study of how animals adapt, find a niche, and survive.
What is a virus?
A virus reproduces inside the cells of living hosts, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus.
Viruses consist of nucleic acid and a protein coat.
Usually the nucleic acid is RNA; sometimes it is DNA. ...
Viruses are much smaller than bacteria.
They lack the means for self-reproduction outside a host cell and are therefore generally not considered to be true living organisms.
Without a host cell, viruses cannot carry out their life-sustaining functions or reproduce.
They cannot synthesize proteins, because they lack ribosomes and must use the ribosomes of their host cells to translate viral messenger RNA into viral proteins.
Viruses cannot generate or store energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), but have to derive their energy, and all other metabolic functions, from the host cell. They also parasitize the cell for basic building materials, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids (fats).
All viruses contain nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (but not both), and a protein coat, which encases the nucleic acid. Some viruses are also enclosed by an envelope of fat and protein molecules.
The Place where nerve communication Ends and begins
A junction between two nerve cells, a gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.
An organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells, such as neurons, muscle cells and gland cells.
What do ribosomes make?
1. What is transcription?
2. Where does it take place?
3. What is translation?
4. Where does it take place?
5. What is a codon? Where is it?
6. How does DNA three letter code get converted into an amino acid?
Types of Proteins
a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. It contains an iron atom bound to a heme group.
Insoluble, usually high-sulfur content and filament-forming proteins.
The bulk of epidermal appendages such as:
hair, nails, claws, turtle scutes, horns, whale baleen, beaks, and feathers.
These keratinous materials are formed by cells filled with keratin and are considered ‘dead tissues’.
Keratin structures are among the toughest biological materials, serving as a wide variety of interesting functions, e.g. scales to armor body, horns to combat aggressors, hagfish slime as defense against predators, nails and claws to increase prehension, hair and fur to protect against the environment
Keratin is in skin.
Keratin production related illness
Mutations in the ABCA12 gene cause harlequin ichthyosis.
The ABCA12 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the normal development of skin cells.
This protein plays a major role in the transport of fats (lipids) in the outermost layer of skin (the epidermis).
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations.
The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
A mixture of proteins and phospholipids forming a whitish insulating sheath around many nerve fibers, increasing the speed at which impulses are conducted.
Nerve Cells COnnect to Muscles
Also called neurilemma cell, any of the cells in the peripheral nervous system that produce the myelin sheath around neuronal axons. Schwann cells are named after German physiologist Theodor Schwann, who discovered them in the 19th century.
We are made of many elements
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow