What is DNA?
So far we have said that DNA:
is a double helix
Has a sugar phosphate backbone
contains instructions to make proteins
coils into a chromosome
is in the nucleus of a cell
has nucleotide pairs
We will now learn more about what this means
The following are some of the components, they will help us learn prefixes, how to dissect words:
a pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) with five carbon atoms.
a sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen.
de- (expressing reduction) + oxy-2 + ribose.
RNA has ribose, DNA has deoxyribose
DNA RNA comparison
Triphosphate, diphosphate, monophosphate:
phosphate- phosphorous groups
Nitrogenous base: a nitrogen-containing molecule that has the same chemical properties as a base.
They are particularly important since they make up the building blocks of DNA and RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil.
Purines and Pyrimidines
Bases found in DNA are ATCG
Bases found in RNA are AUCG
RNA is usually single stranded,
DNA is usually double stranded
mRNA is a small "photocopy" of genetic information
DNA is the cell's archive for genetic information passed down from one generation to the next generation
A gene is a part or segment of DNA
any of the series of saturated hydrocarbons including methane, ethane, propane, and higher members.
Nomenclature of alkanes
In chemistry, a phosphate is an anion, salt, functional group or ester derived from a phosphoric acid.
Carbonyl Group (aldehyde and ketones):
a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C=O
An abbreviation for any group in which a carbon or hydrogen atom is attached to the rest of the molecule.
Carboxylic Acid Group:
an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH). The general formula of a carboxylic acid is R–COOH, with R referring to the alkyl group.
Carboxylic acids occur widely. Important examples include the amino acids and acetic acid.
Groups are polar, and the oxygen side is always negative, while the hydrogen side is always positive.
An amide is a functional group containing a carbonyl group linked to a nitrogen atom or any compound containing the amide functional group.
Amino Acid Structures
The water molecule is made up of oxygen and hydrogen, with respective electronegativities of 3.44 and 2.20.
The electronegativity difference polarizes each H–O bond, shifting its electrons towards the oxygen (illustrated by red arrows).
These effects add as vectors to make the overall molecule polar.
Sulfhydryl group (thiol)
Esther and Ether
Bonds in DNA
Acids and Bases
Acids donate H ions, bases take them
Author: Jazmin Gannon
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