The science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world.
Every species is organized by Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
The three Domains are Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Archaea
Bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have a nucleus
Eukaryotes have a nucleus, this group includes plants, animals, fungi, and many single celled eukaryotes
Archaea are very ancient, some live in environments that few living beings can thrive in
Are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia.
Cyanobacteria are very ancient life forms, perhaps only Archaea are older.
The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
An unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
The amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Types of life
Found to have existed 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes
Bateria may have:
whip-like appendages used to move around, like arms
short, hair-like appendages extending from the surface, used to stick to surfaces
sticky coating, used to stick to surfaces
Types of bacteria
are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
are referred to as cocci (singular: coccus),
an example is Streptococcus
Cylindrical, capsule-shaped bacteria
are named bacilli (singular: bacillus), bacteria that make yogurt: Lactobacillus bulgaricus
are called spirilla (singular: spirillum) Lyme disease and syphillis are caused by this type of bacteria
Cell division in prokaryotes is called binary fission, asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies, cells transfer genetic information by making contact.
Both Archaea and Bacteria can reproduce through binary fission.
are all bacteria bad?
Some but not all bacteria are pathogens: a disease causing agent
Some bacteria are purely beneficial and help with symbiosis: the relationship in which two different organisms live together, often interdependently.
Converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use to grow
The other domain of prokaryotic life, tend to live in extreme environments
Grouped according to where they live (pg 371):
Some Archaea live in hydrothermal vents
In deep sea vents, heated fluids rise to the surface through openings in the seafloor. Hydrothermal fluid temperatures can reach 400°C (750°F) or more, but the archaea do not boil under the extreme pressure of the deep ocean.
As they pour out of a vent, the fluids encounter cold, oxygenated seawater, causing another, more rapid series of chemical reactions to occur. Sulfur and other materials precipitate, or come out of solution, to form metal-rich towers and deposits of minerals on the seafloor.
The sea floor is an anaerobic environment, no oxygen
Who lives there
It is theorized that this is where life on Earth originated
Deep sea mining might be connected to cobalt mining
Cobalt is used for phones and computer batteries, some companies are interested in mining it from the deep sea.
Alternatives to cobalt are needed so companies don't consider deep sea mining a viable option.
Most Cobalt currently comes from Democratic Republic of Congo
DR Congo produces 60% of the world's supply of cobalt. The mineral is used to produce lithium-ion batteries used to power electric cars, laptops and smartphones. However, the extraction process has been beset with concerns of illegal mining, human rights abuses and corruption.
What are alternatives to cobalt?
A good battery is able to store current and transfer it, conduct heat, and cool quickly.
Some of the methods that are used to develop Bio tech
The ancestral form of trait selection, when people intentionally breed plants and animals to have certain characteristics. When wild plants were bred into food crops.
Genetic Modification in a Lab
Genetic Engineering with Agrobaterium tumefaciens
DNA samples are studied through PCR Electrophoresis to see if the target DNA is in the sample.
Results to read
Genetic Engineering of Mosquitoes
PCR in Crime Scene Investigation
But it is not perfect
What are some possible issues with this biotech?
That applies to plants, what if we GM people?
Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna have been awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their development of CRISPR/Cas9 genetic editing, this video is from 2015.
there are many ethical issues to consider
Stem Cell Organs
Biomedical Engineering includes mechanical, Biological, chemical ENGINEERING and computer software
Upcoming issues to resolve
Really, it's a very big deal
It is better to wash your hands than use hand sanitizer, otherwise, the bacteria that survive are the ones that get to pass on their genes
Chapters 11 and 12
Gregory Mendel’s research on genetics.
What is a Punnett Square and how do we use it?
Natural selection and adaptation: insects and plants adapting to chemicals, how organisms find ways to survive.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
An allele that is visible in the organism only if to copies of the allele are present
an allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele
Having two different alleles
Having two identical alleles
The visible or measureable features of an individual.
The particular genetic makeup of an individual
Specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome (they are haploid)
Half the genetic information compared to most cells, one copy of every chromosome
Having two copies of every chromosome
The two copies of each chromosome in a diploid cell.
A specialized type of cell division that generated genetically unique haploid gametes
An early stage of development in which maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
The principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis
Stem Cell Technology to help Same Sex couples reproduce: In vitro Gametogenesis
A cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism.
An early stage of development reached when a zygote undergoes cell division to form a multicellular structure.
An individual who is heterozygous for a particular gene of interest, and can pass the recessive allele to offspring.
A diagram used to determine the probabilities of offspring having particular genotypes b looking at the genotypes of the parents
CRISPR (/ˈkrɪspər/) (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)
Gene editing technology.
The 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has gone to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna “for the development of a method for genome editing.” That method, formally known as CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing but often called simply CRISPR, allows scientists to precisely cut any strand of DNA they wish.
CF is Recessive, Huntington's Disease is Dominant
With an autosomal dominant trait, if one parent has it, the children have a 50% chance of inheriting that gene, if they have that gene, they have the trait.
Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly
Hemophilia is a sex-linked trait and recessive.
The recessive gene for hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome.
Males inherit one affected X chromosome from the mother and, less commonly, females inherit an affected X chromosome from both mother and father experience the disease.
Females who inherit an affected X chromosome from either mother or father are carriers for the disease.
More genetic complexities
Paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
X Linked trait
a phenotype determined by an allele on an X chromosome
Heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between the dominant and the recessive genes.
Wavy hair is an example
Both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
An example is Blood Type
The three blood types are A, B, and O
The possible combinations that we inherit from parent are:
OO, AO, BO, AB, AA, and BB
Both parental alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
O is recessive
So if you are blood type A, you may be AA homozygous or AO heterozygous
Different blood types have different surface markers, not every blood type is compatible:
Genes move with individuals
a change in the frequency of an allele within a population over time
As individuals move around we can observe genetic drift
Something happens leaving only a few individuals to reproduce
The new population might not fully represent the ancestral population
Tasmanian devils and population bottleneck
GENETIC SEQUENCES IN CHROMOSOMES ARE CALLED GENES
plural noun: genes
A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and determines some characteristic of the offspring.
"proteins are coded directly by genes"
A distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
Variation of a genetic trait
An allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
An allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
Physical genetic expression
Internal genetic expression
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
CHROMOSOMES GO THROUGH CHANGES TO CREATE A VARIETY OF GAMETES
a Sex cell
occurs between prophase I and metaphase I of meiosis, some genes are swapped to create unique gametes.
Gamete production is meiosis.
A gamete is a mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Austrian Monk and botanist, he observed peas to see the traits that were inherited by their offspring.
The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
It is named after Reginald C. Punnett.
The diagram is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
Guinea Pig Fur Color
More COmplex Genetic COmbination
a breeding experiment between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in a single given trait. The P generation organisms are homozygous for the given trait.
A cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits. According to Mendel's statement, between the alleles of both these loci there is a relationship of completely dominant - recessive traits.
let's learn more about Types of cells
Adult Stem Cells/ Somatic Stem cells: Not specialized yet
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and to develop into the three primary germ cell layers of the early embryo during gastrulation and therefore into all cells of the adult body, but not extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta.
Multipotent Stem Cells
A cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Cells from embryonic blastocyst, a few day old fetus, they get these from "leftover" IVF clinic embryos.
Totipotent Stem Cells
Can form all the cell types in a body, plus the extraembryonic, or placental, cells. These are embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization.
Types of cells
âRed blood cell and white blood cell
Stem cell technology for skin recovery
Stem Cell treatment for vision
âEpithelial cells line the stomach the intestines, our whole digestive tract, they have structures that help them absorb nutrients
What all of these cells have in common is the cell membrane, membranes are made of a phospholipid bilayer an have channels that allow certain things in and out of the cell.
Extracellular: Outside of the cell
Intracellular: Inside the cell
Cell Membrane Review
Cholesterol in cell membranes
Around 25-30% of a cell membrane has cholesterol. Cholesterol can fit into spaces between phospholipids and prevent water-soluble molecules from diffusing across the membrane. Cholesterol helps cells keep their shape and stay flexible.
Membrane proteins do a series of jobs for the cell, receptor proteins relay signals between the cell's internal and external environments. Transport proteins move molecules and ions across the membrane.
Are channels in the cell membrane, the fluid mosaic model, that allow things in and out of the cell.
Aquaporins are water channels for the cell
Are like antennae, they signal other cells and communicate with the outside of the cell, they may receive hormones or other messages
Extend across the cell membrane and serve to identify the cell. The immune system uses these proteins to tell friendly cells from foreign invaders. They are as unique as fingerprints.
These proteins and elements are all part of the
A mosaic of components âincluding phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydratesâthat gives the membrane a fluid character.
Cell Transport Types
the spontaneous, no energy needed, movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane. From higher concentration to lower concentration to equalize the solution on both sides.
Moves with the flow, from high concentration to low concentration
Movement with the flow/ with the concentration gradient, from high concentration to low, with the help of a transport protein.
A movement of ions and other atomic or molecular substances across cell membranes without need of energy input, so no ATP needed, using a specialized channel protein in the cell membrane.
Movement against the regular gradient flow, from low concentration to high concentration.
Movement of ions or molecules through a cell membrane using specialized proteins with enzymes, using ATP.
Bringing things in, like large molecules, the cell will form a vesicle to bring something into the cell.
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
The molecules that will enter the cell need to have a special signal so the cell can identify them
Taking in fluids, cell drinking
Forming a vesicle to transport a molecule
âSodium Potassium Pump
A form of active transport, transports sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell
Very important in the function of neurons so action potentials can be fired
âTypes of cell transport:
âmeasure of the osmotic pressure gradient
Lower concentration of water, more solute molecules, makes cells shrink like pickles
Less concentrated solution, more solute inside the cell, water will enter the cell and the cell might burst
concentration (of let's say salt) inside and outside the cell are equal
We can see osmosis with an eggsperiment
The ten major systems of the body
Parts of the brain
How the heart works
The respiratory system
Cell Specialization in Plants and anmals
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow