A biomass pyramid is a chart drawn to scale that shows the biomass at each stage of a food chain. The pyramid below is a generic pyramid showing different trophic levels of organisms in the food chain and the amount they consume and retain from lower trophic level organisms.
Sample Test QUestions
Which of the following organisms is part of the trophic levelwith the greatest amount of stored energy?
d. Red oat grass
Which of the following statements is true?
a. Heterotrophs produce their own food.
b. Autotrophs take in nutrients from outside themselves.
c. Consumers are heterotrophs.
d. Consumers are autotrophs.
As energy is transferred between trophic levels, only a small fraction of the available energy is transferred. How can this observation be explained, taking into account the law of conservation of energy?
a. Organic systems do not demonstrate the conservation of energy.
b. Organisms, even after death, continue to store energy in organic
c. Since biomass increases at higher levels, the concentration of energy is
d. The unused energy is lost as heat through metabolic processes.
The diagram here is called a trophic pyramid. It shows trophic levels of a grassland habitat. The size of each trophic level represents biomass, with producers representing the largest amount of biomass.
a. The higher levels of the pyramid are smaller due to human
interference with those organisms.
b. Decomposers work more rapidly breaking down animal tissue than
c. The organisms on the lower level of the pyramid tend to be smaller
d. The higher levels of the pyramid are smaller due to the inefficiency of
What is food?
What is Grass? WHat is Frass?
Grass is made up of basic elements, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Life started in the Ocean, here are some of the oldest species
The Sea Sponge from Phylum Porifera
ctenophora: Comb jellie, not quite a jellyfish: Ctenophora comprise a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide. They are notable for the groups of cilia they use for swimming, and they are the largest animals to swim with the help of cilia.
Cnidaria: Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are a predominantly marine species
Coral Biology. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc).
What is coral?
Coral in the Fossil Record
The first coral reefs date from the early Ordovician of about 500 million years ago, and their form at the time differed significantly from that of corals today, which, following, the mass extinction 240 million years ago at the end of the Permian period, first appeared in the middle of the Triassic period.
Brachiopods: are marine animals belonging to their own phylum, Brachiopoda, of the animal kingdom. Modern brachiopods occupy a variety of sea-bed habitats ranging from the Tropics to the cold waters of the Arctic and, especially, Antarctic.
Geology Time Periods
Cambrian Extinction was about 488 million years ago
Ostracoderms: armoured, jawless, fishlikevertebrates that emerged during the early part of the Paleozoic Era (542–251 million years ago)
Plants got bigger and absorbed more Carbon Dioxide, and there was an Ice Age
Devonian period 419 million years ago (mya), there were Devonian Forests 360 mya
Permian period 298 million years ago
Permian-Tirassic Extiction: 252 million years ago
Trilobites: some still survived, they survived about 4 mass extinctions:
Trilobites used chitin as a protein, just like mushrooms, the shell was chitin and calcite
GEOLOGIC TIME PERIOD CONCEPT MAP
This week we will be exploring biology of the desert using the words that we have learned and learning some new words, we will create a model of the desert and the beings that live there.
Biosphere: the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.
Atmosphere: air, Hydrosphere: water
Biome: a large naturally occurring community of flora and fauna occupying a major habitat, examples: desert, forest or tundra.
Biomes of the World - tundra biome, desert biome, marine biome, grassland biome, taiga biome, temperate grassland biomes, temperate deciduous forest biome, tropical rain forest biome, savanna biome, polar ice biome
Habitat: a place where an organism or a community lives, more specific, examples: the grassland, coral reef, underground, a pond, a river
Environment: the environment is all of the natural materials and living things, including sunlight. If those things are natural, it is a natural environment. Environment includes the living and nonliving things that an organism interacts with, or has an effect on it. Includes rocks.
Community: an interacting group of various species in a common location. For example, a forest of trees and undergrowth plants, inhabited by animals and rooted in soil containing bacteria and fungi, constitutes a biological community.
Population: individuals of a certain species found in an area—all the squirrels that live in a park; all toads that live in a pond.
Ecological Hierarchy: Population, community, ecosystem, biome and biosphere
Relationships Between Organisms
Symbiosis: relationship between living organisms
Food Chain: organisms feed from lower trophic level.
Food Web: multiple food chains.
Trophic levels: producers, consumers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, detritivores, decomposers.
Decomposers: mushrooms, eukaryotes, break down dead things
Detritivores: consume decaying plant materials: earthworms and millipedes
Consumer: Any organism that eats
Producer: Organism that makes their own food using sunlight, or absorbs sunlight, plants absorb blue and red light and reflect back green light
Heterotrophs are Consumers
Autotrophs are Producers
Cyanobacteria: Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum consisting of bacteria and the endosymbiotic plastids. They commonly obtain their energy through photosynthesis. They are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Endosymbiotic Theory: the theory that chloroplasts and mitochondria used to be free living bacteria (prokaryotes) and now are part of eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes: no cell nucleus, have plasmids
Eukaryotes: have nucleus and organelles
Primary consumer: eats the plants
Secondary Consumer: Eats the organism that eats the plants
Tertiary Consumer: Large predator
A species' place in the food web is their trophic level.
Physical aspects of the environment
Erosion: the process of scraping away the surface, or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents. Grasses slow down erosion and help water seep into the ground.
Groundwater: water in the soil and in crevices of rock, underground, on its way down, it trickles for years until it reaches an aquifer or gets absorbed by roots
Aquifer: underground water reservoir, water can be extracted using a water well.
Precipitation: water in the air, drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail
Nitrogen: Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. Nitrogen plays an important role in the health and growth of all plants, and it is responsible for the green leaves you see growing on them. Nitrogen helps plants photosynthesize, which is a process that involves using energy from the sun to break down water and carbon dioxide so that sugars are formed.
Nitrogen Cycle: Nitrogen from the air goes into soil and bacteria turn it into a type of nitrogen that plants can use. It involves nitrogen fixation, nitrogen fixing bacteria, assimilation, ammonification, nitrification, nitrifying bacteria, denitrification, denitrifying bacteria, atmospheric N2, ammonia, nitrates, nitrites.
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria: bacteria's that are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into essential compounds required by the plants. Plants cannot directly take in nitrogen from atmosphere. So there are certain bacteria's which helps the plant to do so.
Nitrogen Fixing Plants: plants don’t pull nitrogen from the air on their own. They actually need help from a common bacteria called Rhizobium. The bacteria infects legume plants such as peas and beans and uses the plant to help it draw nitrogen from the air.
Carbon Cycle: We breathe out carbon dioxide, CO2 and plants take it to make glucose (sugar) and release oxygen in the process. It includes: Atmospheric CO2, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, combustion, death and decomposition, fossil fuels, erosion from marine organisms.
Water/ Hydrogen Cycle: Water evaporates and rains back down. It included: ground water, percolation, run off, transpiration, precipitation, evaporation, water vapor.
Phosphorous cycle: when it rains, water brings phosphorous down from rocks in mountains and it nourishes plants
Plants need: NPK, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Potassium
Some of the Populations in the
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Symbiosis in the desert
- Commensalism/mutualism between roadrunner and pricklypear cactus, mutualism if poo is a good fertilizer.
- Commensalism: an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.
- Parasitism between opuntia moth and prickly pear cacti
- Parasitism: A relationship between two organisms in which one organism (the parasite) benefits and the other (the host) is harmed.
Each species is classified according to Their Taxonomy
Taxonomy: classification of organisms
Diorama of the desert
We made conductive clay, potatoes conduct electricity too
Energy from the sun is stored in food
Select four desert animals and teach your classmates about them: