How Cells Divide
Cells divide to produce more identical cells with the same genes, this is how tissues grow and regenerate, this process is called mitosis.
A type of cell division that results in two cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Book Vocabulary Words:
A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.
Genetic makeup of an organism
The physical qualities of an organism including observable or not observable traits
Alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences.
Zooming into DNA
An organized group of different cell types that work together to carry out a particular function. Different types of cells make different tissues.
There are Many Cell Types:
Immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types
Cells are constantly replicating
The process by which a cell reproduces itself; it is normal and essential for growth and healing of tissues
One or more identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication
The specialized region of a chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined
The physical division of a cell into two daughter cells
Stages of mitosis
Cell Division , electron microscopy, we will look at min 6:06 to 8:55
Meiosis: A specialized type of cell division that generates unique haploid gametes. Generates sex cells.
Gamete: specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome, sperm are male gametes, egg are female gametes
Haploid: having only one copy of every chromosome
Exchange of genetic material, new gene combinations are formed on chromatids (recombination), all four haploid daughter cells will be genetically distinct (sister chromatids are no longer identical).
Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells)
Stems cells located in tissues that help maintain and regenerate those tissues
A cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells that make up an early embryo which can differentiate into nearly every cell type in the body
A cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell in the body.
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
Cell Death: Apoptosis
WHat proteins are made through DNA Translation?
How can DNA actually code for a trait?
Translated proteins are encapsulated in vesicles in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported out of the cell and into the tissues where they are needed.
Different Amino Acids code for Different Traits
Keratin is in many structures
Hair, Feather, Nails, Hooves, Scales, Feathers... a main amino acid is cysteine which has sulphur, what we smell when hair burns.
Most insects have a protein called chitin
Did dinosaurs adapt and become dinosaurs?
Sea Lion Whiskers are made of keratin, they also have more hemoglobin to go deep sea diving and very flexible bones and cartilage for deep sea pressure.
Proteins that carry and store oxygen
Oxygen transport, in red blood cells, made of four peptide/ amino acid chains, some of the amino acids are Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine. There are approximately 3 million hemoglobin molecules in just one red blood cell.
Oxygen storage, in muscles and heart muscles, one poly peptide chain 153 amino acids long
Watch the first few min of this:
Proteins that Help flying Creatures Glow
Photoproteins help animals glow.
Luciferase photoprotein produced by dinoflagellates, red algae
Proteins that keep fish from freezing
a type of fish that produces Antifreeze proteins (AFPs), these proteins contain 37 amino acids
There are different types of AntiFreeze Proteins and other things that help living beings prevent freezing such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in cyanobacteria.
Glowing Ocean Beings
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in sea creatures composed of 238 amino acid residues
Proteins that help birds see magnetic fields
Magnetoreception may be connected to cryptochrome proteins, Cry1, Cry2, Cry4, or magnetite within the animal, Cry1 has 586 amino acids
Proteins that help scavengers eat
Antibodies are glycoproteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, blood proteins.
Digestive Enzymes are Proteins.
Proteins are part of snake venom
Proteins constitute 90-95% of venom's dry weight and they are responsible for almost all of its biological effects.
Male and juvenile female platypi possess spurs on each hind leg that are connected to paired venom glands, platypus venom contains 19 different peptide fractions.
Antibodies are Proteins
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses
Genes are replicated as cells Multiply
Cells at Work
DNA is made of nucleic acids or base pairs that are coiled up into chromosomes that live in the nucleus of the cell.
DNA replicates to make more cells and codes for proteins.
Both DNA replication and transcription involve the generation of a new copy of the DNA in a cell.
DNA transcription replicates the DNA into RNA
DNA replication makes another copy of DNA.
DNA Replication and transcription happen inside the nucleus while translation happens outside
mRNA: messenger RNA, single strand, leaves the nucleus to make proteins
tRNA: transfer RNA, helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein by releasing an amino acid
Ribosomes: float in the cytoplasm, help assemble proteins by matching mRNA and tRNA
5' to 3'
There is a 5 Prime and a 3 Prime
Histones are proteins that help organize DNA into coils
Electron Microscope Images
The microscopes we have in class
DNA is too small to see with our class microscopes
WHo discovered it?
Scanning Electron Microscope
DNA: is the molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
DNA exists in the nuclei of most cells, DNA molecules are organized into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of a single long DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. If a single DNA molecule were stretched out it would be 1 to 3 meters long
Nucleotides: the building blocks of DNA
Each has a sugar, a phosphate, and a base, one of four bases
Bases: A, T, C, and G
Thymine (T) Uracil in RNA (U)
The sequence is unique in each person
Double helix: the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together
Hydrogen bonds: or base pairing hold the strands together
Polymer: made up of building block molecules. Biopolymers made of monomers
Genetic Code: the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
DNA Profile: a visual representation of a person's unique DNA sequence
Genome: one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
Amino acids: The building blocks of proteins, there are 20 different amino acids
All amino acids have the same basic core structure but each also has a unique chemical side group. They bind together in linear chain, peptide chain.
Protein: A macromolecule made up of repeating sub-units known as amino acids, which determine the shape and function of a protein. Proteins play critical roles in organisms.
Gene: a sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene expression: the process of using DNA instructions to make proteins
Phenotype: the physical attributes of an organism including observable and internal, non observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences
Regulatory sequence: the part of the gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of a protein produced
Coding Sequence: part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, identity, shape, and function of proteins.
Messenger RNA (mRNA): RNA copy of an original DNA sequence made during transcription
Transcription: Transcription is the first step of DNA based gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Translation: the second stage of gene expression. Translation 'reads' mRNA sequences and assembles the corresponding amino acids to make proteins.
RNA Polymerase: the enzyme that accomplishes transcription. RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a complementary strand or RNA,
Ribosome: the cellular machinery that assembles proteins during the process of translation. checks for a matching codon and anticodon.
Codon: a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
Anti-codon: the complementary side on tRNA that leads to release of an aminoacid
Peptide: a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain
How DNA Makes Protein
How Art Helps us See Biology
Energy Transfer within a Trophic SYstem
This week is for review since we have been taking about energy transfer and trophic cycles.
Etymology of the word trophic:
late 19th century: from Greek trophikos, from trophē ‘nourishment’, from trephein ‘nourish’.
trophic means to nourish
Eating gives us energy
If we eat too much then we store the energy and gain weight. In the United States, 36.5 percent of adults are obese. Another 32.5 percent of American adults are overweight
calories in/ Calories out
So if you eat a burger it take an hour of high energy exercise to burn the calories, otherwise you will store some of the energy
A full meal is over 1,000 calories.
A McDonald's meal with a shake has
1,680 calories and 74 grams of fat
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
1,000 calories or kilocalorie (Kcal); a capital C in Calorie means "kilocalorie", the Calorie is what we see in food labels
Carbohydrates give us calories
We need some, in moderation
The Glycemic Index (GI) is a relative ranking of carbohydrate in foods according to how they affect blood glucose levels. Carbohydrates with a low GI value (55 or less) are more slowly digested, absorbed and metabolised and cause a lower and slower rise in blood glucose and, therefore usually, insulin levels.
Food that we eat gets broken down into subunits
a complex animal carbohydrate, made up of liked chains of glucose molecules, that store energy for short-term use
a type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for long term use
Energy is extracted from food by mitochondria
The process is called aerobic respiration
A series of reactions that occur in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP
There are many parts to the process:
a series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units; glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is the first step of both aerobic respiration and fermentation.
Citric Acid Cycle
a set of reactions that takes place in mitochondria and helps extract energy (in the form of high-energy electrons) from food; the second step in aerobic respiration
Electron Transport Chain
a process that takes place in mitochondria and produces the bulk of ATP during aerobic respiration; the third step in aerobic respiration
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
Where ATP is made, membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
ATP synthase is an enzyme that creates the energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), forming it from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
The molecule that cells use to power energy-requiring functions, the cells "currency"
a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP. Fermentation produces far less ATP than aerobic respiration.
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow