We have gone over a few ways in which cells have learned to work together all on their own and have even adopted photosynthetic algae to move in the direction of being photosynthetic themselves. Sometimes we apply pressure for the DNA to be in a species that it would never want to be in.
We see if the DNA is in the plant through PCR Electrophoresis:
genetic engineering is different from plant breeding
it takes a long time for plants and species to adapt and change
Radiometric Dating: The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
Radioactive isotope: an unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
Half-Life: the amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Uranium-238: has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Potassium-40: has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Stromatolites: are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia.
Prokaryotes: about 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
what alters genes
Mutagen: any chemical or physical agent that can damage DNA by changing its nucleotide sequence
Carcinogen: Any chemical agent that causes cancer by damaging DNA, carcinogens are a type of mutagen.
Proto-oncogene: a gene that codes for a protein that helps cells divide normally, signal cells to progress through the cell cycle at the appropriate time. Mutation in these genes causes them to be overstimulated, causing too much cell division,
Tumor Suppressor Genes: signal cells to pause the cell to fix mistakes, mutation in these genes cause them to be under expressed, allowing damaged cells to divide inappropriately. Genes that code for proteins that monitor and check cell cycle progression. When these genes mutate, tumor suppressor proteins lose normal function.
Oncogene: a mutated and overactive form of a proto-oncogene. Oncogene drive cells to divide continually.
Meiosis: A specialized type of cell division that generates unique haploid gametes. Generates sex cells.
Gamete: specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome, sperm are male gametes, egg are female gametes
Haploid: having only one copy of every chromosome
Mitosis: a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Gene: A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene Expression: The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.
Genotype: Genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype: the physical qualities of an organism including observable or not observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences.
Recessive Allele: an allele that reveals itself in the phenotype only if the organism has two copies of that allele
Dominant Allele: an allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele
Heterozygous: having two different alleles
Homozygous: having two identical alleles
Punnett Square: a diagram used to determine probabilities of offspring having particular genotypes, given the genotypes of the parents.
Carrier: an individual who is heterozygous for a particular gene of interest, and therefore can pass on the recessive allele without showing any of its effects
Polygenic trait: a trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene
Autosomes: paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes: Paired chromosomes that differ between males and females, XX in females, XY in males
Y Chromosome: of two chromosomes in humans. The presence of a Y chromosome signals the male developmental pathway during fetal development
X Chromosomes: one of the two sex chromosomes in humans
gender diversity affirmed in ancient cultures
gender diversity was recognized
In addition to zachar, male, and nekevah, female, there are four other genders/sexes that the Rabbis recognize:
gender diversity in native american tribes
Osh-Tisch, spiritual leader and warrior of Crow Nation was born a male and married a female, but adorned himself in women’s clothing and lived daily life as a female.
We’wha (1849-1896), of the Zuni nation. We’wha was biologically male and engendered with a female spirit.
"The Two Spirit culture of Native Americans was one of the first things Europeans worked to destroy and cover up. According to people like American artist George Catlin, the Two Spirit tradition had to be eradicated before it could go into history books. Catlin said the tradition: “must be extinguished before it can be more fully recorded.”
"Spanish Catholic monks destroyed most of the Aztec codices to eradicate traditional Native beliefs and history, including those that told of the Two Spirit tradition.” As a result, Native Americans were forced to dress and act according to newly designated gender roles."
In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca, a muxe is an assigned male at birth individual who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender. Some marry women and have children while others choose men as sexual or romantic partners.
gender diversity has been part of humanity for as long as we have existed, sex of an organism is not as simple as xy vs xx and gender is not as matter of body parts so all we can do is respect the identity of the people around us
Biology book ch 11, pg 209
Meiosis: a specialized type of cell division that generates genetically unique haploid gametes.
Zygote: a cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism. Formed when an egg is fertilizes by sperm.
Cross-over: gene swapping between maternal and paternal chromosomes
Recombination: the stage in meiosis where maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
Independent Assortment: the principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis. If one gene ends up in one gamete, the other gene is likely to end up in another gamete.
Polygenic trait: a trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene.
Multifactorial Inheritance: an interaction between genes and the environment that contributes to a phenotype or trait
X-linked trait: a phenotype determined by an allele on an x chromosome
Incomplete dominance: a form of inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive
Codominance: a form of inheritance in which both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
Mutation has most likely led to diversity
animals live in communities that coexist with other communities of animals
We have an interdependent system of systems that we call the ecosystem
Each being occupied a trophic level: each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
Biosphere: the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.
Abiotic Factors: non-living components of a biosphere
Biotic Factors: all living components of a biosphere from single celled beings an onward
Symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
Cyanobacteria: phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cryptobiotic (biological) soil crust: a living groundcover that forms the foundation of desert plant life.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: are microorganisms present in the soil or in plant roots that change nitrogen gases from the atmosphere into solid nitrogen compounds that plants can use in the soil.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria: contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. When the plant dies, the fixed nitrogen is released, making it available to other plants; this helps to fertilize the soil.
Stomatolites: or stromatoliths, fossils, are layered mounds, columns, and sheet-like sedimentary rocks that were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Animals have learned how to photosynthesize by absorbing genes from photosynthesis species.
animals work in teams where all have equal access to resources even though they have different functions, any time they have access to different, or more energy costing resources, the extra energy is used for the benefit of the entire group
Modular communications: ant communication is to a large extent chemical, we investigated the pheromone functions involved in foraging and alarm behaviour
Group think: the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility.
humans strive for a world that is beyond insect politics
equality in human systems
schools are a place for democracy and customer service, schools are responsible for providing ways to involve parents and community members. decisions may be made DEMOCRATICALLY.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Symbiosis: A close, interdependent relationship between different species
Symbiosis: Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism
Parasitism: benefits one species while the other is harmed: ticks, parasitic fish lice
Mutualism: symbiosis that is beneficial to both organisms involved: cleaner fish that help bigger fish get rid of parasitic fish lice, birds that eat fleas off a cow
Commensalism: benefits one organism but the other one is neither harmed not helped: Remora fish that hitch a ride on turtles or sharks
examples of beings working together
Gone are the days of "that's just the way it is".
|File Size:||59 kb|
Sudbury school. A Sudbury school is a type of school, usually for the K-12 age range, where students have complete responsibility for their own education, and the school is run by direct democracy in which students and staff are almost equals.
The job of a school is to provide a democratic structure in which kids can discover their interests and learn how to live in a community that solves conflicts together.
to grow up in absence of fear
and to become responsible, empathic and self-determined citizens.
The idea is not new.
In 1693 the philosopher John Locke wrote that “things children learn, should never be a burden to them.”
The school evolved from ideas introduced by teachers and pupils.
One of the principles was that the students had the right to not listen to the teacher.
- The first democratic school that still exists, is Summerhill in Suffolk, England. It was founded in 1921 by A.S. Neill who believed that a school should be made for the child, rather than the other way around.
- Class attendance is voluntary.
- Some children may spend weeks in the woods or do nothing all day, while others choose to learn math or try out reading class.
- When they grow older many turn to traditional subjects with full focus when they realise that they need them for college entrance exams.
- At weekly school meetings, staff and students gather to solve conflicts.
- Once a conflict is brought to the meeting, everybody in the school can speak up, mediate or come up with a solution.
- After the conflict was discussed and democratically processed, harsh feelings are often buried and staff and students leave peacefully.
- The meetings are also used to work on the school regulations and anybody can make a proposal for a change of the rules.
- If one student requests a change, members discuss and then decide by popular vote whether the new idea will be implemented.
- Sometimes the kids may vote for the abolishment of all rules. But after a few days of total chaos.
- Students usually use the same democratic process to reimplement order.
- Almost as if they all naturally seek structure.
In the 1960s young educators from all over took inspiration from Summerhill and opened so called “free schools”. One was the Sudbury Valley School which was founded in Massachusetts, United States. Sudbury took the ideals of a democratic education even further. Once a year the school meeting is used to re-elect teachers and principals. Those that don’t receive majority vote will be replaced.
Today there are many independent Sudbury and other democratic schools all over the world spanning from Brazil to Israel to Thailand. Using different structures, they all promote the idea that students and teachers should have an equal say in what to learn and how to work with each other. The goal is to give children a deep sense for equality and justice.
to design your own ASSIGNMENT Ask Yourself:
Choose your work dynamic:
- Do you want to work by yourself or with others?
- Would you like to work with a partner or with a team?
- If you want to work in a team would you prefer to work with three or four people?
Choose a type of energy:
- Sunlight use for photosynthesis
- Energy from food
- Fuel, bio diesel or ethanol
- Nutrients going through the cell membrane
Make a poster that shows how that energy moves, label the parts of the system
- Present what you learned
- Teach the whole class what you learned
- Think of an activity or an icebreaker to present your topic
- Practice your art skills
SYstems of energy transfer
- sunlight is absorbed by chloroplasts in the plant leaf
- Sunlight has Photons: packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy, light is measured in frequency, we measure frequency in nanometers (nm)
- Chloroplast: the organelle in the plant cell where photosynthesis occurs
- Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photos of light energy during photosynthesis
- Chlorophyll a absorbs light in the blue-violet region, while chlorophyll b absorbs red-blue light. Blue light has a wavelength of 430 nanometers (nm) and red light has 662 nm
- Green light is reflected because it is not absorbed by the plant, green light is at about 550nm
- Calvin cycle: the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis.
- Plants use the sunlight and CO2 from the air to make sugar
- Carbon Fixation: the conversion of inorganic carbon CO2 into organic forms, sugars
- We call the energy molecules formed ATP, Adenosinetriphosphate: The molecules that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
- Oxygen is a byproduct of photosynthesis
- We need oxygen to breathe
Nutrients going through the cell membrane
- cell membranes are made of a lipid bilayer
- Has embedded proteins doors and channels
- Simple diffusion – uses no energy movement of small or lipophilic molecules (e.g. O2, CO2, etc.)
- Osmosis – movement of water molecules (dependent on solute concentrations)
- Facilitated diffusion – requires energy to get done, movement of large or charged molecules via membrane proteins (e.g. ions, sucrose, etc.)
- The base of the global food chain, a collection of beings
- Single cell organisms
- Large animals migrate to the Arctic to feed on plankton... fish and whales
- Algae are Phytoplankton, they are protists
- Protist: is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus
- They practice photosynthesis, phytoplankton release molecular oxygen (O2) into the water as a waste biproduct
- It is estimated that about 50% of the world's oxygen is produced via phytoplankton photosynthesis
- They are keeping us alive, the whole planet
- So plankton refers to small and microscopic organisms drifting or floating in the sea or fresh water, consisting chiefly of diatoms, protozoans, small crustaceans, and the eggs and larval stages of larger animals
- They absorb CO2 and take it down to the bottom of the ocean, to Bikini Bottom, we call this system the biological pump
- Whales have been seen helping the plankton sink to the bottom, they are farming, intentionally
Energy from food
- Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules (Food)
- Potential Energy: stored energy (Food)
- Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion or movement, (muscle movement, digestion breaks down food and releases energy)
- Macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
- Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health
- Digestion: we call the process of breaking down food digestion, the point of digestion is to extract energy from food and absorb it, and use it
- Enzymes: We use enzymes to break down food , an enzyme is a protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, they accelerate the activation energy
- Activation Energy: The energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes reduce activation energy to speed up chemical reactions
- Insulin: a hormone that is secreted by the pancreas, it regulates blood sugar. It is also a protein, a chain of amino acids that is produced by the pancreas. Insulin binds to cells in the body and enables them to absorb sugar from the blood.
- Facilitated Diffusion: Glucose enters the cell through facilitated diffusion using a protein door in the cell membrane's lipid bilayer
- Metabolism: all biochemical reactions hat happen in an organism reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new cell structures
Fuel, bio diesel or ethanol
- Biofuel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel
- A megajoule is 1,000,000.00 joules
- Producing one megajoule of Biodiesel removes 183 Kilograms of the greenhouse gas CO2 from the air.
- Good sources are hemp and algae
- As part of the photosynthesis process algae produce oil and can generate 15 times more oil per acre than other plants used for biofuels, such as corn
- Algae can grow in salt water, freshwater or even contaminated water, at sea or in ponds, and on land not suitable for food production.
- Producing one megajoule of energy in Ethanol from corn adds 81-84 Kilograms of CO2 to the air.
- NMSU is working on biofuel from algae for vehicles and jet fuel
Happy Labor Day, Sept 3
Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction through which sunlight is transformed into sugar to use as: 1). usable energy to power cellular functions 2). stored energy that is kept in oils as potential energy and 3). some energy is used as building blocks for cell structures. The molecule that cells use to power energy requiring functions is called ATP.
We learned about Algae, a single celled organism that is not a plant but does photosynthesize. It is a protist. Algae can help us as food, fertilizer, and biofuel. it forms a big part of the base of the planetary food chain along with plankton.
Algae can be grown in open ponds and then the cells can be broken and separated into many components (pg 86). We can get oil for biodiesel, the carbohydrates can be fermented and used to produce ethanol which can be burned as fuel or electricity, the proteins can be used to feed people or livestock and the leftover biomass can be used as an organic fertilizer or burned for heat or electricity. It is good to consider our alternative, renewable energy sources.
Energy many be measured in joules, a joule is equal to the energy transferred to an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre.
A megajoule is 1,000,000.00 joules
Producing one megajoule of Biodiesel removes 183 Kilograms of the greenhouse gas CO2 from the air while producing one megajoule of energy in Ethanol from corn adds 81-84 Kilograms of CO2 to the air.
We breathe out CO2 and plants use it to photosynthesize, a by product of photosynthesis is oxygen and we need a balance of chemicals in the air because breathing in too much CO2 is not good for us.
Here are some of the common symptoms of too much CO2, we call it respiratory acidosis:
- fatigue or drowsiness.
- becoming tired easily.
- shortness of breath.
We could die in an unbalanced environment.
current energy sources in the us
- 40% fossil fuel petroleum
- 8% Nuclear Electric Power
- 23% Natural GAs
- 22% Coal
- 7% Renewable Energy
of that 7% that is renewable energy
- 1% Solar energy, less than 1%
- 36% Hydroelectric
- 5% Geothermal energy
- 53% Biomass
- 5% Wind Energy
- SO you can see, there is room for growth here
energy for us, from food
- Food is a source of macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
- Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health
- Carbohydrates: fruits and veggies, grains, legumes
- Complex Carbohydrate (Polysaccharide): a carbohydrate made of many simple sugars linked together, a polymer of monosaccharides; examples are starch and glycogen
- Starch: a complex plant carbohydrate made of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
- Fiber: a complex plant carbohydrate that is not digestible by humans
- Glycogen: a complex animal carbohydrate made of linked chaind of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
- Extra sugar/ glucose is converted into glycogen, this type of starch is then stored in the body. When your body needs more glucose the glycogen is converted back into glucose. If the body's glycogen stores are full, the excess carbohydrates are stored as fat.
- Simple Carbohydrates/Simple sugar (Monosaccaride): a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar subunit; an example is glucose
- Complex carbohydrates and starch turn into sugars
- Proteins: Meats, Dairy, Legumes, also grains and veggies
- Fats: Dairy, meats, oils
- A nutrient is a component in food that the body needs to grow, develop, and repair itself
- WE get energy from food and it gives us the ability to do work like building complex molecules in our cells
Essential nutrients: substances that cannot be synthesized by the body and need to be consumed, pre-assembled through the diet, this includes certain amino acids and fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Essential amino acids: there are eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and needs to get from food, some books list 9 amino acids, these are:
In nuts, seeds, eggs, meats, whole grains, seaweed (algae)
Enzymes: We use enzymes to break down food , an enzyme is a protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, they accelerate the activation energy
Activation Energy: The energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes reduce activation energy to speed up chemical reactions
Substrate: is the molecule that the enzyme binds to
Active site: is the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate
Catabolic Reaction: any chemical reaction the breaks down molecules
Anabolic Reaction: any chemical reaction the combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
Digestion: we call the process of breaking down food digestion, the point of digestion is to extract energy from food and absorb it, and use it
Enzyme Names: some names include pepsin, rennin, and trypsin, most enzyme names end in "ase"
Different types of enzymes can break down different nutrients:
- Carbohydrase or amylase enzymes break down starch into sugar.
- Protease enzymes break down proteins into amino acids.
- Lipase enzymes break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol
Coenzyme: a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin , required to activate and enzyme
Cofactor: An inorganic substance, such as a metal ion, required to activate an enzyme
Vitamin: an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
Water soluble vitamins:
- B1 (thianine): cofactor for enzymes involved in energy metabolism and nerve function, found in leafy vegetable, whole grains, meat
- Folate: cofactor for enzymes involved in DNA synthesis and cell production
- B12: cofactor for enzymes involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids and nerve cell maintenance, found in algae, eggs, meat and milk
- C: cofactor for enzymes involved in collagen synthesis, iron absorption and immunity, found in citrus fruits
Fat soluble vitamins:
- A (retinol): in eye pigment, supports skin bone and tooth growth, supports immunity and reproduction, found in fruits, vegetables egg yolk
- D: needed for calcium absorption and bone growth, found in fish and eggs, mushrooms, soy, we need sun to synthesize it
- E: antioxidant, supports cell membrane, in green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains
- K: synthesis of blood clotting factors, in green leafy vegetables, cabbage
Mineral: an inorganic mineral required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance: calcium, potassium, iron, zinc
Inorganic elements not synthesized by animal bodies:
- calcium for bone and teeth, fund in dairy, green veggies, legumes
- Iron: carries oxygen through out the body in hemoglobin in red blood cells found in green vegetables and meats
- Potassium: needed for electrolyte balance, muscle contraction and nerver function, found in fruits, vegetables
- Sodium: needed for electrolyte balance, muscle use and nerve function, in salt, bread, milk
Denatured: shape is changed
Insulin: a hormone that os secreted by the pancreas, it regulates blood sugar. It is also a protein, a chain of amino acids that is produced by the pancreas. Insulin binds to cells in the body and enables them to absorb sugar from the blood.
Difficulty with digesting carbs:
Diabetes type 1: cannot make insulin
Diabetes type 2: the receptors on the cells do not respond very well to insulin leading to an elevated blood sugar level
Illness related to nutrient ABSORPTION
- Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, K, and E need fatty acids for absorption
- Pair foods that are rich in these nutrients (many vegetables are) with a source of healthy fat, like nuts or oil
- To get more calcium from your yogurt or kale, increase your intake of foods that are high in vitamin D
| || |
stem cells can help us repair tissues:
Stem Cells: immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types
- Brain stem cells make neural cells
- Heart stem cells make cardiac muscle
- Bone marrow stem cells make red blood cells
Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells): stems cells located in tissues that help maintain and regenerate those tissues
Multipotent: a cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells: Stem cells that make up an early embryo which can differentiate into nearly every cell type in the body
Pluripotent: a cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell in the body
| || |
| || |
| || |
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY
| || |
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow