Micro organism taxonomy
Each living organism that is studied by scientists is given a species name and is placed into a phylogenetic tree. It is estimated that only about 15% of species have been studied, may of them cannot be seen by people.
Each organism is classified by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
The domains are
Archaea: Very ancient microscopic beings that we will study soon
Eukarya: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists
WHat are some of the microorganisms that exist?
Protozoans: unicellular eukaryotes
Stentors are Eukaryotes
Diatoms are Eukaryotes and also Protists
Protist: is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus.
Diatoms are Phytoplankton, single-celled, have a cell wall of silica.
Diatoms are mainly photosynthetic autotophs; a few are heterotrophs and can live in the absence of light as long as an appropriate organic carbon source is available.
Autotrophs: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from the sunlight through photosynthesis
Plankton is the base of the global food chain, The trillions of microorganisms absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
This community provides food for the ocean.
Scientist study diatoms to study climate change
Micro Universe Behavior
Cyanobateria are a group of photosynthetic bacteria, some of which are nitrogen-fixing, they live in a wide variety of moist soils and in water.
Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes.
(“layered rocks”) are rocky structures made by photosynthetic cyanobacteria, some are 3.5 billion years old.
Cyanobacteria, Diatoms and other plankton are eaten
The word “plankton” comes from the Greek for “drifter” or “wanderer.” An organism is considered plankton if it is carried by tides and currents, and cannot swim well enough to move against these forces. Some plankton drift this way for their entire life cycle. Others are only classified as plankton when they are young, but they eventually grow large enough to swim against the currents. Phytoplankton is photosynthetic and autotrophic while zooplankton is a heterotrophic animal.
Fossil Fuels for Gasoline Come from Plankton
Energy is needed for movement
Energy is the capacity to do work, cellular work includes building complex molecules and moving substances in and out of the cell.
Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules (Food)
Potential Energy: stored energy (Food)
Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion or movement, (muscle movement, digestion breaks down food and releases energy)
Heat: the kinetic energy generated by random movements of molecules or atoms (transfer of energy from food to muscle to environment
Some organisms get energy from the sun and the air while some get it from food
Autotroph: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from sunlight through photosynthesis
Heterotroph: eats other beings: animals, insects
Photosynthesis: the process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy rich molecules using carbon dioxide and water
Plants take sunlight and make sugars, glucose sugar is chemical energy.
Carbon Fixation: the conversion of inorganic carbon CO2 into organic forms, sugars
The sugar glucose goes to:
Chloroplast: the organelle in the plant cell where photosynthesis occurs
Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photons of light energy during photosynthesis
Sunlight has Photons: packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy
A photon is both a wave and a particle
Light Energy: the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation
ATP, Adenosinetriphosphate: The molecules that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
Energy moves around in a trophic cycle
Trophic Cycle: A food web is the natural interconnection of food chains and a graphical representation of what-eats-what in an ecological community.
Trophic Cascade: When something that a large predator does affects the rest of the food chain. An ecological phenomenon triggered by the addition or removal of top predators and involving reciprocal changes in the relative populations of predator and prey through a food chain, which often results in dramatic changes in ecosystem structure and nutrient cycling.
Algae are part of the food chain in salt and freshwater
A simple, typically aquatic plant of a large group that includes the seaweeds and many single-celled forms. Algae used to be considered protists but are now considered eukaryotes. Cyanobacteria, diatoms, algae, and millions of species live together in what we call plankton.
Algae might be the next source of fuel
NMSU is making algae jet fuel
Fuel is part of energy transfer
interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
The endosymbiotic theory states that some of the organelles in eukaryotic cells were once prokaryotic microbes. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the same size as prokaryotic cells and divide by binary fission. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which is circular, not linear.
Non-Biological Nano Bots
We use nutrients to produce cells
We use cells to build tissues and organs, and self repair
Macro and micronutrients in our food
Components in food that the body needs to grow, develop, and repair itself
proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, nutrients that living beings need to maintain health.
the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products
Complex Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides)
a carbohydrate made up of many simple sugars linked together, a polymer of monosaccharides, examples are starch and glycogen
Simple sugar (monosaccharide)
A carbohydrate made of a single sugar subunit, and example is glucose
A complex animal carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules, a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
A complex plant carbohydrate that is not digestible by humans
Micronutrients are nutrients including vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health.
an inorganic chemical element required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance. Examples are calcium, iron, potassium, and zinc
an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
a substance that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained from food, certain amino acids, fatty acid, vitamins and minerals.
Essential Amino Acids
eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and must obtain from food
Nutrients build and repair tissues
Nutrients are used to replace and maintain the cells that do the work of tissue repair
A disease characterized by thinning bones
A disease that is characterized by abnormally high blood-sugar levels
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar
Breaking foods down
a protein that speeds up the rate of a metabolic reaction
an inorganic substance such as a metal-ion that is required to activate an enzyme
a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin, required to activate the enzyme
the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes accelerate reaction by reducing the activation energy
a compound or molecule that an enzyme binds to and on to which it acts
the part of the enzyme that binds to substrates
any chemical reaction that breaks down complex molecules into more simple molecules
any chemical reaction that combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
all biochemical reactions occurring in an organism including reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new structures
Food has calories that fuel energy
is the ability to do work including the building of complex molecules.
Cells turn energy from food into ATP: AdenosineTriPhosphate
ATP is like money in the cell world
Where does ATP come from?
To produce ATP we need oxygen and the help of mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, oxygen comes from plants and other producers, we help producer when we breathe out carbon dioxide
is the process of using oxygen to produce ATP in mitochondria
a process involving a flow of electrons through the electron transport chain
membrane bound organelles in the cell that float around the cell, they have their own DNA, they produce ATP using sugar and oxygen and our cells can use that ATP for cell work.
Each step in the process of building a protein takes energy, the energy is called ATP.
What about excess calories?
Work Inside the Cell Requires Energy
How the images are made
Cell Biology, more in depth
What is a cell ?
What are some of the types of cells?
What are cells made of and what are the various parts of cells?
How do cells work and what are some possible cell jobs?
Carbon is an atom from the periodic table of elements that is found in organic molecules, it can bond with many atoms at the same time and forms chains that create bigger molecules.
Atoms have neutrons, protons and electrons:
Protons are positively charged subatomic particles in the nucleus of an atom
Neutrons are electrically uncharged subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom, neutrons are neutral
Nucleus is the center
Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles, they are smaller than other subatomic particles and exist in a cloud around the nucleus of an atom in, valence shells, they orbit the nucleus
Valence shells are orbits around the nucleus, they can hold a certain number of electrons and the spaces for electrons fill from the inside out.
By looking at how many protons, neutrons, and electrons there are in an atom we can draw Bohr Diagrams.
In the diagram below you can see how many electrons can be held in each valence shell:
Noble gases such as helium and neon have no ability to bond with anything, every spot where a bond could exist is taken up.
Carbon has space for four bonds because the outer valence shell can have eight electrons and carbon has four outer electrons, Neon on the other hand, is all full.
Helium has two outer electrons on a valance shell that can hold two electrons, it cannot bond with anything. Hydrogen on the other hand, has one electron and can bond with one thing, without this, H2O, water, would not be possible and there would be no life as we know it.
Carbon and hydrogen form covalent bonds, this means that they share
electrons and fill their available spaces
In an ionic bond there is an electrochemical attraction between atoms of opposite charges and one atom gives away their electrons, those bonds are stronger and are found in metals.
Many of the foods we eat form ionic bonds, there are alkaline earth metals that we need for proper nutrition, examples are: calcium, sodium, magnesium...
We need salt, just not too much, salt is sodium chloride and has an ionic bond:
Sodium, from salt, is Na on the periodic table of elements, it is an alkali metal, the elements are organized into element families and groups and periods based on their properties
Carbon based macroMolecules
Let's look at some macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids
they contain hydrocarbons, chains of hydrogen and carbon:
generally repel water
We need lipids to form phospholipids:
Phospholipids are in the cell membrane of cells:
Cells have a cell membrane to keep contents safe
an organic molecule that is made up of one or more sugars
one carb sugars are monosaccharides
multiple linked saccharides are polysaccharides
and organic molecule made up of linked amino acid subunits,
Proteins are a combination of 21 amino acids, DNA has a code for what amino acids to link and in what order
There are primary, secondary tertiary, and quaternary structures:
organic molecules made up of linked nucleotide subunits
DNA and RNA are Examples of nucleic acids
Inside the cell
Cell Contents are Organelles
tiny cellular structures that perform specific functions within a cell
Click on the organelles to learn more:
The cell nucleus has chromosomes, they are bundles of DNA
Types of cells
cells that have no internal membranes, no organelles
cells with membrane bound organelles and a nucleus
plants, animals, fungi
Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts that photosynthesize
SIngle cell beings
Many living beings are multicellular, here are some single cell beings:
Diatoms, single cell eukaryotes:
they look like glass
they are protozoans
single celled eukaryotes
Fungi, there are single and multicellular eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
How PENICILLIN was discovered
Gram POSITIVE vs gram negative bacteria
Gram staining is a common technique used to differentiate between two groups of bacteria based on cell wall composition
Penicillin targets the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.
Some antibiotics are protein synthesis inhibitors, they inhibit prokaryotic ribosomes in the bacteria
Ribosomes are needed to produce proteins
Written expression is very important, this is why I ask that you please write at least three complete sentences for each of the questions that I send with my emails. Every week I will be sending three questions that help you reflect on the content of the web site post for the week. Please take this as an opportunity to connect biology to what you already know, what you are learning in other classes, and what you see in your everyday life.
I will be providing feedback and inviting you to have a discussion about what we are learning for the week. I might also make some suggestions that may help you with your writing skills. Strong writers sound eloquent and prepared, you all have wonderful ideas and thoughts, I want to help you be able to get your message out and show how much you know and can contribute to this world. We are all learning and growing together, being open to feedback is a great way to find our areas of growth.
Below are the rubrics that I use to grade your work:
Complete sentences are essential
How your responses will be graded
Examples of strong Responses
The color spectrum is a spectrum of colors visible to the human eye. We can see different colors through a process called refraction. Everyone sees colors differently making the rainbow unique to you.
The five characteristics of life are response to stimuli, ability to reproduce, consumption of energy, maintaining homeostasis, and the ability to grow. Living organisms grow due to cell division. The Mars rover looks for signs of life by analyzing what it finds and looking for signs of gas exchange. The data collected by this robot is sent to NASA here on earth. There are more opportunities now than ever before to become an astronaut and I hope to visit space during my lifetime.
DNA is in cells and is shaped like a double helix, this reminds me of a ladder that has been twisted to form a spiral. DNA is made up of nucleotides, there are four types of nucleotides in DNA, the names of the nucleotides are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. DNA contains instructions that tell cells how to build structures such as proteins.
The main macromolecules in biology are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleotides. Macromolecules are mainly made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, some have phosphorous and sulfur. We use macromolecules in our daily life; carbs and proteins are found in food, lipids are in fats and we have DNA in our cells.
The Plan for the year in Biology
What is science? Color spectrum and symmetry , August 3 to August 7
Process of science, what biology is, why we explore our world and why it is healthy to question everything including science itself.
What is life made up of? Macromolecules. DNA, what is it? August 10 to August 14
Chemistry and molecules of life: what do we consider “life”, elements that make up living organisms, how elements bond to organize and become part of living beings
How do cells work? More on DNA, Parts of a cell, August 17 to August 21
Cell Function and Structure: What a cell is, what cells are made of, parts of cells, how cells work, types of transport
Nutrition, metabolism, Enzymes, August 24 to August 28
What there is in the food we eat, types of nutrients, enzyme reactions.
Microorganisms, Energy Transfer, August 31 to September 4
Algae, cyanobacteria, types of fuel and how energy is transferred
September 7 : off
Food Chains, Dietary Energy and Cellular Respiration, September 8 to September 11
Our culture of eating, nutrition issues, food webs, what is cellular respiration
DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis, September 14 to September 18
DNA Structure and Replication: what is DNA and how does it multiply
How genes are expressed into proteins, September 21 to September 25
Genes to proteins and Amino Acids, tissue formation using cells
Energy transfer for cell division and uses of plants, September 28 to October 2
Chapter 9 and 10
Cell Division and Mitosis: Chromosomes, cell division
October 5 to October 9
What Genes Mean, Stem Cells
October 12 to October 15
Intro to genetics
School Break: October 16
The Study of genetics, human and animal genetics, October 19 to October 23
Chapter 11 & 12
Gregory Mendel’s research on genetics, what is a Punnett Square and how do we use it? Natural selection and adaptation: insects and plants adapting to chemicals, how organisms find ways to survive.
Technologies in Biology: Stem Cell Research, October 26 to October 30
Chapter 13, 14
What are some good and bad things within biology research? We are learning how to regrow tissues and replace organs and are also learning that some bacteria are becoming superbugs.
Examples of Adaptations, Ancient Archaea, November 2 to November 6
Chapters 15, 16, 17, 18
Evolution, How Fossils are Dated, Evidence of Adaptation, how species move around the world
Eukaryotic Evolution, Diversity, November 9 to November 13
Chapter 19, 20
Ancient fossils give us clues of what types of animals there were in the part and where they are now.
November 23 to November 27: Break
Types of migrations, genetic exchange, what is symbiosis? November 30 to December 4
Chapter 21, 22
Population Ecology: population distribution patterns, food chain, how ecosystems work
Fibonacci sequence and how it applies to population growth. Community Ecology: animal societies, why we need pollinators, symbiosis, competition
Global cycles, global climate change. December 7 to December 11
Biomes and what parts of the world they are found in, types of climate, rainfall, water cycles, carbon cycle, temperature, ways to reduce climate change, environmental impact.
Ecosystem Ecology: how rising temperatures affect populations, the Carbon Cycle
Environmental systems and how they work together
What can we do to help? December 14 to December 18
Sustainability: thinking of the future, ways to reduce waste, energy sources that we could use. Group project: Teach us about an alternative energy source or material (bioplastic).
December 21 to January 6 Break
January 7 to January 15
Types of biomes and who lives there, and how: Desert, Tundra, Ocean, Arctic
January 18 Break
January 19 to January 22: Review
Homeostasis and Anatomy, endotherm vs ectotherm, osmosis January 25 to January 29
How many species adapt and stay cool or warm, how we maintain balance within our system.
Digestion, nutrient absorption, active and passive transport, February 1 to February 5
Chapter 26, 27
How do particles move within cells? functions of digestive organs, absorption, obesity. Nervous system anatomy, nerve function, how drugs affect nerves, December.
Coral Reef and Mangrove ecosystems, Reconnect and Review, February 8 to February 12
February 15 Off
Ocean Life and the Connection to Land, Continents, February 16 to February 19
Examples of ecosystems and biolife interactions, February 22 to February 25
Watersheds and PH, Case Study March 1 to March 5
Reproductive Systems, March 8 to March 12
How organisms work, cell membrane, sodium potassium pump, March 15 to March 19
Write a paper on a biology topic that you select.
Spring Break: March 22 to April 2
Digestive system,Circulatory system, Nervous system: April 5 to April 9
Skeletal and muscle system: April 12 to 16
Year long review: April 19 to April 23
Peer Review Paper: April 26 to April 30
Looking and test questions and graphs: May 3 to 7
Discussion on how learning biology can improve the world: May 10 to May 14
Exam: May 17 to May 21
College preparedness, how classes are scheduled, how to buy books: May 24 to May 28
Science is based on observations
A scientific community is made up of a group of people that study science, they usually work for universities, organizations, and private sector companies, scientists share their observations to compare notes.
Scientists keep track of things like:
Climate patterns, how many animals are in a habitat, habitat destruction, whether or not the same disease is in various parts of the world, whether or not something is alive, and much more.
How to know if SOMETHING is alive?
Sometimes it is not so clear, NASA has been working on missions to Mars for decades to see if there is life on Mars. The first spacecraft to land in Mars was Viking Lander 1, this happened July 20,1976.
What are signs of life?
The robots that have been sent to Mars to look for signs of life have arms that collect samples of possible signs of life.
Here are the five functional traits of living beings:
Living beings grow through cell division, single celled organisms grow in cell size.
Living beings produce new organisms by having the organs needed to reproduce, they usually produce genetically similar organisms that are not completely identical.
The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment. Living organisms maintain a balanced temperature, ph, sugar and salt level, and water balance, we have many organs that help us maintain homeostasis.
Sense and respond to stimuli:
Living organisms move in response to what is happening, they might move away from the sun or towards the sun, they might move towards a food source or away from a predator.
Obtain and use energy:
Living beings consume food, or sunlight in the case of plants. They process the energy through metabolism where chemical reactions turn the energy into a usable form. Living being consume energy to power their daily activities.
PROCESS of Science
Scientists work in teams to analyze the samples that are collected by the missions to Mars:
A lot of the data analysis happens right there in Mars, a machine checks samples to see if there is oxygen or carbon dioxide (what we breathe out), the information is sent to NASA for analysis.
This is how we learn what elements are in the soil, an element is a chemically pure substance that cannot be chemically broken down, each element is made of a single type of atom, an atom is the smallest unit of an element.
The elements are organized in the periodic table
How small is an atom?
Nasa COntinues to look for life on mars
Looking for the molecules of life
A molecule is a group of Atoms that are bonded together
The main elements in biological molecules:
Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Sulphur
Carbohydrates: made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Are the main source of food, sugars, starches
There are monosaccharides and polysaccharides
Lipids: made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulphur
Are fats, they are hydrophobic which means they repel water
Proteins: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometimes sulphur
Are in all living organisms, they are made of chains of amino acids, there are 21 amino acids
Nucleic acids: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
Store and transmit genetic information, they are in DNA and RNA
Here are some examples of atoms bonding and forming molecules
Carbon forms covalent bonds, this involves sharing of electron pairs between atoms, carbon has four electrons that can form bonds so it can form multiple covalent bonds and be part of large molecules.
Macromolecules are large molecules:
âcarbohydrates, lipid, proteins, and nucleic acids.
âNucleic acids are made of nucleotide subunits that are linked
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids
The nucleotide subunits are ATCG:
Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine, RNA has Uracil while DNA does not
âDNA is a double helix while RNA is a single strand
These structures contain instructions to build proteins and molecules that make up living organisms
Now we can see DNA with an electron microscope
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow