Spring just started, how do seasons work?
The tilt of the Earth's AXIS is the most important reason why seasons occur.
We have hot summers and cold winters because of the tilt of the Earth's axis.
The tilt of the Earth means the Earth will lean towards the Sun (Summer) or lean away from the Sun (Winter) 6 months later.
It is summer in the US while it is winter in Brazil
cultures around the world were aware of the equinox
the PHYSICS of something
Photons have no shape - they are massless particles. They are just discrete packets of electromagnetic energy. Anything that travels at the speed of light has zero length. This makes it even harder to predict the photon's shape (even if it had one).
coronal mass ejection
Van allen radiation belt
Sun radiation photo of the day
light frequencies at sunset
sunset in mars
The atmosphere on Mars is different from that of the Earth and has a significant amount of fine particulate in the atmosphere.
This causes different light scattering than what we see here on Earth.
The dust in the Martian atmosphere allows blue light to penetrate the atmosphere more efficiently than longer-wavelength light.
That causes the blue colors in the mixed light coming from the sun to stay closer to sun's part of the sky, compared to the wider scattering of yellow and red colors.
The effect is most pronounced near sunset, when light from the sun passes through a longer path in the atmosphere than it does at mid-day. this produces a blue tinted sunset on Mars.
More on how our immune system works
We do have some antibiotic resistant bacteria, one of the most notable is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA sickens around 94,000 people per year, and kills about 19,000
Bacteria was covered back in chapter 14, lets go to page 274
This staph infection can be transferred through
Cellulitis (sel-u-LIE-tis) is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.
Cellulitis usually affects the skin on the lower legs, but it can occur in the face, arms and other areas.
Cellulitis occurs when bacteria,
most commonly streptococcus and staphylococcus, enter through a crack or break in your skin. The incidence of a more serious staphylococcus infection called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing.
Antibiotics: are chemicals that either kill bacteria or slow their growth interfering with the function of essential bacterial cell structures.
Bacteria can become resistant because they are constantly mutating and adapting to pressure.
Antibacterial products are natural selection, we are selecting for the strongest bacteria by killing off the bacteria that is susceptible to the antibacterial chemicals.
Drainage of a cyst should be done by a doctor in a medical setting to prevent contamination and infection.
chapter 29 is on the immune system
Immune system: a system of cells and tissues that acts to defend the body against foreign cells and infectious agents.
Immunity: The resistance to a given pathogen by the immune system
Pathogen: Infectious agent, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites
Virus: A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate.
Has a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein shell.
Page 586 shows how virus will enter a cell and use the cell to replicate.
Lymphocyte: specialized white blood cell
B Cells: a lymphocyte not processed by the thymus gland, and responsible for producing antibodies.
Thymus: where T Cells mature
T Cells: a lymphocyte of a type produced or processed by the thymus gland and actively participating in the immune response.
Helper T Cells: type of T cell that helps activate B cells
Cytotoxic T Cell: Type of T cell that destroys altered cells, including virally infected cell
Antigen: Molecule to which antibodies bind
Antibody: A protein produced by B cells that binds to antigens and either neutralized them or flags other cells to destroy pathogens
Memory cells: A long-lived B or T cells that is produced during the primary response that is rapidly activated in the secondary response
Primary Response: The adaptive response mounted the first time a particular antigen is encountered by the immune system
Secondary Response: Rapid and strong response mounted when a particular antigen is encountered by the immune system subsequent to the first encounter
Lymph nodes: small organs in the lymphatic system where B and T cells may encounter pathogens
Lymphocyte: specialized white blood cell of the immune system
Adaptive Immunity: A protective response mediated by lymphocytes, for long lasting immunity against specific pathogens
Cell-Mediated Immunity: Adaptive immunity that rids the body of altered infected cells
Innate Immunity: non-specific immunity such as barriers like skin and chemical barriers that are present from birth
Histamine: A molecule released by damaged tissue and during allergic reactions
Allergy: A misdirected immune response against environmental substances such as dust, pollen, and food
Autoimmune disease: A misdirected immune response in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells.
Inflammatory Response: an innate defense activated by local tissue damage
Phagocyte: Type of white blood cell, lives in tissues, responds to inflammatory response.
Neutrophil: Phagocytic cell in the circulation that plays and important role in inflammatory response
Natural Killer Cell: Type of white blood cell that destroys virally infected cells and tumor cells
Apoptosis: Programmed cell death
Interferon: Antiviral proteins produced by virally infected cells to protect other cells from becoming infected
Complement Proteins: Protein in blood that help destroy pathogens by coating or puncturing them
Vaccine: Preparation of killed or weakened microorganisms or viruses that is given to people or animals to generate a memory immune response
hiv destroys helper t cells
Medical prevention of hiv
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
When taken consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people who are at high risk by up to 92%. PrEP is much less effective if it is not taken consistently.
Click here for side effect information to consider:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a combination of antiretroviral drugs for people starting HIV treatment:
Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
We are adapting
It is Pi 3.14 Day
Math is trippy, we won't watch the second video, it is just here in case you are interested
The number π is a mathematical constant. Originally defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.
Geometry in nature...
Never ending patterns that make everything
Math is the language of the universe
Julia Set: https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/38514/The-beauty-of-fractals-A-simple-fractal-rendering
math in nature
Algorithm: a process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
Frequency affects form
quantum physics and the underlying rules that govern reality
The branch of mechanics that deals with the mathematical description of the motion and interaction of subatomic particles, incorporating the concepts of quantization of energy, wave-particle duality, the uncertainty principle, and the correspondence principle.
how neurons transfer energy
It is not exactly just electricity moving from cell to cell, there is complexity
Our nervous system needs sugar, not too much:
People whose blood sugar is too high or difficult to control are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, eye problems and other complications, including nerve damage (diabetic neuropathy). ...
“When a nerve is damaged, you may feel tingling, pins and needles, burning or sharp, stabbing pain.”
How nicotine moves
rude people putting bad stuff in e-cigs?
neuroscience of Cannabis
We do not promote or encourage the use of any drug, it is important to cover the known neuroscience of the effects of drugs, awareness is the key. Education can help us make better, healthier decisions.
other drugs that have been studied
Ayahuasca is a traditional plant medicine, a blend of vine Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotropia viridis.
LSD The psychedelic drug lysergic acid diethylamide was first synthesized on November 16, 1938 by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz laboratories in Basel, Switzerland. It was not until five years later on April 19, 1943, that the psychedelic properties were found.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter. It has a popular image as a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness, though its actual biological function is complex and multifaceted, modulating cognition, reward, learning, memory, and numerous physiological processes.
Hexagons are carbon rings, benzene rings, Six Carbon and Six Hydrogen molecules
Chemical Formulas for drugs have Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen,
in a form that fits into the neurological pathways,
nothing new, nothing that is not already in you.
Psilocybin has phosphorous, our nerves need phosphorous
The Three Minerals You Need to Balance Your Nervous System –
Phosphorus, Potassium, and Calcium.
Fruits and vegetables tend to be high potassium sources.
High-protein foods, such as meats, along with dried beans and peas, tend to be high in phosphorus.
Double jeopardy foods that are high in both potassium and phosphorus include dairy products, nuts, seeds, chocolate and some whole-grain foods.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) C21H30O2
Salvia Divinorum C23H28O8
Plant sugar sucrose C12H22O11
There are over 480 natural components found within the Cannabis sativa plant:
Plants are to be respected and not used for RECREATIOn
We have a culture of commodification and exploitation of plants.
The Use of Salvia divinorum from a Mazatec Perspective:
Ethnobotany is the study of a region's plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of a local culture and people. An ethnobotanist thus strives to document the local customs involving the practical uses of local flora for many aspects of life, such as plants as medicines, foods, and clothing.
dmt simulation videos look like math fractals
Geometry and the imagination, we do not need drugs to be in the present moment
long term effects on relying on a drug
Drugs teach people that they do not need drugs, eventually.
They usually then tell other people that they do not need drugs.
Cocaine blocks the removal of dopamine from the synapse by binding to the dopamine transporters. This results in a buildup of dopamine in the synapse.
In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by neurons (nerve cells) to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine pathways, one of which plays a major role in the motivational component of reward-motivated behavior.
ways to build up serotonin
Going out into nature
Music and Arts
Expressing yourself freely round supportive people
Hanging out with pets
Hanging out with friends and family
Omega Fatty Acids
Anything that helps you feel happy, supported, and loved
Learning new skills
Teaching others new skills
myelin sheath health
Nutrients for myelin sheath:
Multiple Sclerosis: A disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves.
Multiple sclerosis causes many different symptoms, including vision loss, pain, fatigue, and impaired coordination. The symptoms, severity, and duration can vary from person to person. Some people may be symptom free most of their lives, while others can have severe chronic symptoms that never go away.
What you can do to prevent Alzheimer's | Lisa Genova
stem cell research
There are three types of stem cells:
IVF in vitro fertilization
Pro egg freezing for IVF Video
lies about fertility
The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food in subunits so that nutrients can be absorbed.
The act of taking food into the mouth.
The central pathway of the digestive system; a long muscular tube the pushes food between the mouth ant the anus,
Glands that secrete enzymes, including salivary amylase, which digests carbohydrates, into the mouth.
A muscular organ in the mouth that aids in swallowing
The section of the digestive tract between the mouth and the stomach
Coordinate muscular contractions that force food down the digestive tract.
An expandable muscular organ that stores, mechanically breaks down, digests proteins in food.
A protein-digesting enzyme that is active in the stomach
The acidic :soup"of partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine.
The organ in which the bulk of chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs.
The first portion of the small intestine; the duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach and mixes it with digestive secretions from other organs
An organ that helps digestion by producing enzymes (lipase) that act in the small intestine, secretes a juice that neutralizes acidic chyme.
Aids digestion by producing bile salts and emulsifying fats.
Chemicals produces by the liver an stored by the gallbladder that emulsify fats s they can be chemically digested by enzymes
To break up large fat globules into small fat droplets that can be more efficiently chemically digested by enzymes.
Organ that stores bile salts and releases them as needed into the small intestine.
A fat-digesting enzyme active in the small intestine
cells that line organs and body cavities; in the digestive tract to absorb nutrients.
The uptake of digested food molecules by the epithelial cells lining the small intestin
Finger-like projections or folds in the lining of the small intestine that are responsible for nutrient absorption and water absorption
Remaining water is absorbed and solid stool is formed.
The first and longest portion of the large intestine, water absorption.
Solid waste material eliminated form the digestive tract.
A hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place.
For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
Hernias are most common in the abdomen, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas.
Carbon capture can help with carbon dioxide emissions and can also help with fire management
Carbon Dioxide from Carbon emission can put out a fire, a forest fire or a brush fire
Carbon dioxide can be trapped and turned into carbon or baking soda, it can be stored underground, or stored in case of a fire emergency, baking soda has sodium, adding salt to the soil is not good but this can help with parts of the fire
We went over the following systems last week
Intergumentary System: Skin, hair, nails
Muscular System: Cardiac, Smooth Muscle, Skeletal Muscle
Circulatory System: Heart, Lungs, Aorta, Veins
Skeletal System: Bones and Cartilage
Urinary System: Bladder, Kidneys, Ureters
Digestive System: Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Stomach, Mesentery, Small Intestine, Large Intestine
Nervous System: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve Cells
this week we will cover
Endocrine System: communication within the body using hormones made by tissues including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands
Lymphatic System: transfers lymph fluid from tissues into the blood and includes the cells and organs of the immune system, lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow
Respiratory System: organs involved in the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood. Organs include trachea, lungs, and diagram
Reproductive System: development of offspring, testes, penis, ovaries and uterus
the brain and endocrine system are quite connected
Parts of the Brain and what they do
Somewhat true, overall true, but its not that simple:
The left side of the brain is responsible for controlling the right side of the body. It also performs tasks that have to do with logic, such as in science and mathematics. On the other hand, the right hemisphere coordinates the left side of the body, and performs tasks that have do with creativity and the arts.
Right/Left cerebral hemisphere:
The hypothalamus acts as the connector between the endocrine and nervous systems to achieve this. It plays a part in many essential functions of the body such as:
myths about right vs left
The Dangers of Ingesting Alcoholic Drinks And Xanax Together
Both Xanax and alcohol depress the central nervous system, which is responsible for your breathing. Taking both of these drugs can result in breathing becoming so slow and shallow that death ultimately results.
Understanding more about CNS depressants demonstrates why mixing alcohol with other medications can be risky. Specifically, these medications cause the messages being sent through the body by the nervous system to slow down in one way or another. As described by Healthline, slowing down the CNS results in the following:
The GABA receptors are a class of receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers.
Benzodiazepines operate widely in the brain, affecting emotional reactions, memory, thinking, control of consciousness, muscle tone and coordination.
Benzodiazepines enhance the action of the neurotransmitter, GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid).
miyelyn sheath in nerve cells