How do nervous systems affect creatures?
In this class we will learn about the nerve systems of various species, the nervous systems of humans, how nerve systems help us survive, and how certain chemicals affect nerve cells.
Parts of a nerve cell
Nerve SYstem Vocabulary
The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS)
The CNS interlinks with the peripheral nervous system, which through a network of nerve fibers sends messages around the body (hands and Feet etc.)
The peripheral nervous system has three main divisions: Autonomic, Sensory and Motor. Below are types of nerves in the PNS:
The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for intense physical activity and is often referred to as the fight-or-flight response.
The parasympathetic nervous system has almost the exact opposite effect and relaxes the body and inhibits or slows many high energy functions.
Afferent neurons: sensory, carry information to brain
Efferent neurons: action, motor, carry information away from brain
Somatic Nervous System: controls all the stuff you think about doing
Autonomic Nervous System: all the things we do without thinking, breathing, digestion, heartbeat
Sympathetic Nervous System: fight or flight
Parasympathetic Nervous System: bodily functions: digestion, heart, constricts lungs, makes nose runny
How Neurons Connect to other Neurons
Sodium Potassium Pump: uses ATP to let 3 sodium ions out in exchange for 2 potassium ions getting in.
Ion Channel: do not need ATP to function, ions such as Sodium, each cell can have around 300 different types of ion channels, each for a specific type of ion.
Action Potential: the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
Depolarization and Repolarization
Sodium Potassium Pump
NERVOUS System Review
Nervous SYstems in various animals
A sea sponge is considered an animal, it is however one of the most ancient animal type that we know of, they do not have a nervous system like other animals do, each cell reacts to stimuli independently, a sea sponge is a collection of cells that are living together like lego pieces.
The Nervous System of Deer
Content Objective: students will be able to explain what competition is and how animals reduce competition by studying animal behavior and distribution patterns.
Language Objective: students will use the target vocabulary covered in class to answer questions about ways to reduce competition, and describe population distribution patterns.
Ecology Concepts that we will Learn ABout This Week
Each organism interacts with other organisms and with the physical (abiotic) components of the environment.
Competition in Ecology: when two or more organisms are competing for the same limited resource, it may be food, space, or a mate.
Competition may occur between members of the same species or of a different species. Competition harms both competitors. The negative effects of competition limit population numbers because resources are limited and growth, reproduction, and survival are affected
Most species look for ways to reduce competition by considering other options for food, space, and other resources.
ln a forest, each species may feed on a different part of a tree (e.9. trunk, branches, twigs, flowers, orleaves) or occupy different areas of vertical air-space (e.9. ground, understorey, sub-canopy, or canopy). Competition may also be reduced by using the same resources at a different time of the day or year.
For our assignment we will look at five species of warbler and learn what they are doing to reduce competition.
How Different SPecies of Warbler coexist?
Overall it is better to reduce competition by finding a niche
Ecology Vocabulary For Population Growth
Natural Selection: organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.
Carrying Capacity: the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that a region can support without environmental degradation.
Limiting factor: anything that constrains a population's size and slows or stops it from growing. Examples of limiting factors are biotic, like food, mates, predators, disease, and competition with other organisms for resources.
Forms of Competition
Each species has a distribution pattern
Some animals live in large group while some are more solitary.
Symbiosis can reduce the issues with overcrowding
Crash COurse on Community Ecology
Human population Growth
Our food choices are connected to the environment
We have learned about nutrient cycles that explain how nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous get into our food.
We have learned about food webs and how everything is connected from the microbes to the whales.
Let's learn more about anatomy and physiology starting with digestion and metabolism.
Today we learn more about digestion
Digestion: the mechanical breakdown and chemical breakdown of food into subunits so that nutrients can be absorbed.
Ingestion: the act of taking food into the mouth
Digestive Tract: the central pathway of the digestive system; a long muscular tube that pushes food through
Salivary Glands: glands that secrete enzymes including salivary amylase, which digests carbohydrates in the mouth
Tongue: a muscular organ in the mouth that aids in swallowing.
Esophagus: the section of the digestive tract between the mouth and the stomach
Peristalsis: coordinated muscular contractions that force food down the digestive tract
Stomach: an expandable muscular organ that stores, mechanically breaks down, and digests protein in food.
Pepsin: a protein digesting enzyme that is active in the stomach
Chyme: the acidic "soup" of partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine
Small intestine: the organ in which the bulk of chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs
Duodenum: the first portion of the small intestine; the duodenum receives the chyme from the stomach and mixes it with digestive secretions from other organs
Jejunum: 0.9 meters (3 feet) long
Ileum: the longest part of the small intestine, about 1.8 meters (6 feet) long. It is thicker, more vascular, and has more developed mucosal folds than the jejunum.
Pancreas: an organ that helps digestion by producing enzymes such as lipase that act in the small intestine, and by secreting a juice that neutralizes acidic chyme.
Liver: an organ that aids digestion by producing bile salts that emulsify fats
Bile Salts: chemicals produced by the liver and stored by the gallbladder that emulsify fats so they can be chemically digested by enzymes.
Emulsify: to break up large fat globules into small fat droplets that can be more efficiently chemically digested by enzymes
Gallbladder: an organ that stores bile salts and releases them as needed into the small intestine.
Lipase: a fat-digesting enzyme active in the small intestine
Epithelial cells: cells that line organs and body cavities; in the digestive tract they sit in direct contract with food and its breakdown products.
Absorption: the uptake of digested food molecules by the epithelial cells lining the small intestine
Villi (singular: Villus): fingerlike projections of folds in the lining of the small intestine that are responsible for most nutrient and water absorption.
Large Intestine: the last organ in the digestive tract, in which remaining water is absorbed and solid stool is formed
Colon: the first and longest portion of the large intestine; the colon plays an important role in water reabsorption.
Stool: poo, solid waste material eliminated from the digestive tract.
Elimination: the expulsion of undigested material in the form of stool
The digestive system works with the nervous system
Also the endocrine system
What is Gastric Bypass Surgery?
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow