The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
It is named after Reginald C. Punnett.
The diagram is used by biologists to determine the probability of an offspring having a particular genotype.
A monohybrid cross is a breeding experiment between P generation (parental generation) organisms that differ in a single given trait. The P generation organisms are homozygous for the given trait.
Dihybrid cross is a cross between two different lines/genes that differ in two observed traits. According to Mendel's statement, between the alleles of both these loci there is a relationship of completely dominant - recessive traits.
Examples of Dominant vs Recessive Genes
An allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
An allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
Sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
Physical genetic expression
Internal genetic expression
Variation of a genetic trait
a Sex cell
Conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
Calico cats are almost always female because the locus of the gene for the orange/non-orange coloring is on the X chromosome.
Sickle cell: In sickle cell anemia, blood is also chronically low in oxygen
Olympic Medalist Sarah Winckless:
The endosymbiosis theory proposes that cyanobacteria may have evolved into the chloroplasts that exist in plant cells today (Gault and Marler, 2009)
Cyanobacteria don't have chloroplasts. Instead, the chlorophyll is stored in thylakoids in their cytoplasm.
Diazotrophs are able to conduct nitrogen fixation.
Cyanobacteria can convert inert, atmospheric nitrogen into an organic form (e.g. nitrate or ammonia) that other organisms, including plants, can use.
'True plants' are not able to do this. They can only use the organic form of nitrogen and have to rely man-made fertilisers or form a symbiotic relationship with diazotrophs (nitrogen-fixing bacteria).
The nitrogen cycle:
Nitrogen is cycled through an ecosystem by both plants and animals.
Decomposers break down dead organisms and their waste products to release ammonia in a process called ammonification.
Organisms called nitrifying bacteria convert this ammonia into nitrates in a process called nitrification.
These nitrates can be used by plants to make amino acids.
The process of converting nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia is called nitrogen fixation.
This process is carried out by bacteria that live in the soil and in plant roots.
Plants can absorb both ammonia and nitrates from the soil, but animals cannot.
Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other organisms and then digesting the proteins they contain.
Nitrogen is needed for proteins and for DNA structures
Proteins are chains of amino acids, polymers, long chains of repeating units:
Nitrogen forms peptide bonds:
a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain, the carboxyl group of each acid being joined to the amino group of the next by a bond of the type -OC-NH-.
And these peptide bonds form chain of amino acids:
Nucleic Bases are in DNA and RNA:
DNA is organized into a double helix:
DNA is bundled up into chromosomes:
RNA is half of the DNA strand:
RNA has Uracil instead of Thymine
RNA is read by ribosomes in DNA Translation to make proteins by linking amino acids to make chains of amino acids, polymers, also called polypeptides.
Genetic sequences in chromosomes are called genes
plural noun: genes
(in informal use) a unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
"proteins coded directly by genes"
(in technical use) a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.
Chromosomes go through changes to create a variety of gametes
Crossing over occurs between prophase I and metaphase I of meiosis, some genes are swapped to create unique gametes.
A gamete is a mature haploid male or female germ cell which is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Gamete production is meiosis:
Life forms have gone from tiny archaea, to single celled prokaryotes, to complex multi-cellular organisms that have tissues that form organs.
Speciation is the forming of a whole new species.
Adaptation comes from changes in genetics that help the species survive.
New species may result from adaptation and niche filling.
To reduce competition creatures might engage in different behaviors, or eat different, things and eventually become a different species.
Animals that are able to survive are able to pass on their genes and their offspring are better able to survive.
Genes can affect color, shape, behavior, scent, and texture.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is the process of quick adaptation and change as members of a species find different niches and become separate species, this may happen when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
Ecosystems and adaptation
We have an interdependent system of systems that we call the ecosystem
Each being is part of a trophic level: there are several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem.
Biosphere: the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.
Abiotic Factors: non-living components of a biosphere
Biotic Factors: all living components of a biosphere from single celled beings an onward
Symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
IT TAKES A LONG TIME FOR SPECIES TO ADAPT AND CHANGE
Stromatolites: are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mounds built of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia. Stromatolites were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Prokaryotes: about 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
How do we know how old fossils are?
Radiometric Dating: The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
Radioactive isotope: an unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
Half-Life: the amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Uranium-238: has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Potassium-40: has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Some Animals are finding ways to PHOTOSYNTHESIZE
Some animals have learned how to photosynthesize by adopting chloroplasts.
Cyanobacteria: phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cryptobiotic (biological) soil crust: a living groundcover that forms the foundation of desert plant life.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: are microorganisms present in the soil or in plant roots that change nitrogen gases from the atmosphere into solid nitrogen compounds that plants can use in the soil.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria: contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. When the plant dies, the fixed nitrogen is released, making it available to other plants; this helps to fertilize the soil.
The endosymbiotic theory attempts to explain the origins of organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells. ... From prokaryote to eukaryote
Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria, and chloroplasts from cyanobacteria
The rocks of an environment affect the life
Types of rock weathering
How big is an atom?
El Paso Salt Wars
Many animals will COLLABORATE within an ENVIRONMENT
Different species will coexist by eating different things or engaging in different behavior. Birds show us many examples of this.
Mac Arthur's Warblers
Human have killed many of the large predators
This has occurred because people want the animals that the mountain lions eat; rocky mountain and desert bighorn sheep we captured and auctioned off, while hares were used for fur coats.
Wolf vs Deer
Ladybird and Aphid Populations
What are the elements of an environment?
Three abiotic factors
Three types of living beings
Three types of bodies of water
Three features of an environment
Three types of symbiotic relationships
Map of US Aquifers
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials. Groundwater can be extracted using a water well.
TEXAS AND MEXICO SHARE 15 AQUIFERS. THE STATE AND FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS HAVE DONE LITTLE TO UNDERSTAND THEM.
Karst Aquifers are Habitats for Salamanders and Fish
Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park (Philippines)
A cenote is a natural pit, or sinkhole, resulting from the collapse of limestone bedrock that exposes groundwater underneath.
We will make our own paint colors by mixing micas and Iron oxides
Checking sources for ethical treatment of workers is very important.
ecology concept of the day: Reduction of Competition
watersheds affect the ph of bodies of water
The quality of the water that is available to the organisms in an ecosystem may affect nutrient availability, erosion, and cell health.
Chemistry in water
CHemistry in Air
Populations of animals interact: wolves affect deer population, deer affect plant population deer also affect tick population. Predatory birds such as owls affect rodent population and rodent population affects tick population.
Less deer/ less rodents means less Lyme Disease
Climate change also affects population interactions, a later start of winter can lead ticks to kill a moose, even without disease.
Population: A group of organisms of the same species living and interacting in a particular area
Ecology: the study of the interactions between organisms, and between organisms and their non-living environment.
Community: interacting populations of different species in a defined habitat
Ecosystem: the living organisms in an area and the nonliving components of the environment with which they interact.
Distribution pattern: the way organisms are distributed in a space. Depends on resources and interactions with other members of the population.
Growth Rate: the difference between the birth rate of a given population and the death rate of a given population, also known as the rate of natural increase.
Exponential Growth: the unrestricted growth of a population increasing at a constant growth rate.
Carrying Capacity: The maximum population size that a given environment or habitat can support given its food supply or other natural resources.
Logistic Growth: A pattern of growth that starts off fast and then levels off as the population reaches the carrying capacity of the environment.
The Fibonacci sequence begins with the numbers 0 and 1. ...
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144
Fibonacci sequence first appears in the book Liber Abaci (1202) by Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci.
Fibonacci considers the growth of an idealized (biologically unrealistic) rabbit population, assuming that:
A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
Population Growth Algorithm is a forecasting Algorithm that may be used for predicting the Population Growth
Population Density: the number of organisms per given area.
Density-Dependent Factor: factor whose influence on population size and growth depends on the number and crowding of individuals in the population (for example, predation)
Density Independent Factor: chance, a factor that can influence a population size and growth regardless of the numbers and crowding within a population (weather)
Biotic Factors: refers to the living components of an environment
Abiotic Factors: refers to nonliving components of an environment
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow