The science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world.
Every species is organized by Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
The three Domains are Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Archaea
Bacteria are prokaryotes, they do not have a nucleus
Eukaryotes have a nucleus, this group includes plants, animals, fungi, and many single celled eukaryotes
Archaea are very ancient, some live in environments that few living beings can thrive in
Are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia.
Cyanobacteria are very ancient life forms, perhaps only Archaea are older.
The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
An unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
The amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Types of life
Found to have existed 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
Prokaryotes include the bacteria and cyanobacteria.
Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes
Bateria may have:
whip-like appendages used to move around, like arms
short, hair-like appendages extending from the surface, used to stick to surfaces
sticky coating, used to stick to surfaces
Types of bacteria
are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
are referred to as cocci (singular: coccus),
an example is Streptococcus
Cylindrical, capsule-shaped bacteria
are named bacilli (singular: bacillus), bacteria that make yogurt: Lactobacillus bulgaricus
are called spirilla (singular: spirillum) Lyme disease and syphillis are caused by this type of bacteria
Cell division in prokaryotes is called binary fission, asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies, cells transfer genetic information by making contact.
Both Archaea and Bacteria can reproduce through binary fission.
are all bacteria bad?
Some but not all bacteria are pathogens: a disease causing agent
Some bacteria are purely beneficial and help with symbiosis: the relationship in which two different organisms live together, often interdependently.
Converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that plants can use to grow
The other domain of prokaryotic life, tend to live in extreme environments
Grouped according to where they live (pg 371):
Some Archaea live in hydrothermal vents
In deep sea vents, heated fluids rise to the surface through openings in the seafloor. Hydrothermal fluid temperatures can reach 400°C (750°F) or more, but the archaea do not boil under the extreme pressure of the deep ocean.
As they pour out of a vent, the fluids encounter cold, oxygenated seawater, causing another, more rapid series of chemical reactions to occur. Sulfur and other materials precipitate, or come out of solution, to form metal-rich towers and deposits of minerals on the seafloor.
The sea floor is an anaerobic environment, no oxygen
Who lives there
It is theorized that this is where life on Earth originated
Deep sea mining might be connected to cobalt mining
Cobalt is used for phones and computer batteries, some companies are interested in mining it from the deep sea.
Alternatives to cobalt are needed so companies don't consider deep sea mining a viable option.
Most Cobalt currently comes from Democratic Republic of Congo
DR Congo produces 60% of the world's supply of cobalt. The mineral is used to produce lithium-ion batteries used to power electric cars, laptops and smartphones. However, the extraction process has been beset with concerns of illegal mining, human rights abuses and corruption.
What are alternatives to cobalt?
A good battery is able to store current and transfer it, conduct heat, and cool quickly.
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow