Ecosystems and adaptation
We have an interdependent system of systems that we call the ecosystem
Each being is part of a trophic level: there are several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem.
Biosphere: the regions of the surface, atmosphere, and hydrosphere of the earth (or analogous parts of other planets) occupied by living organisms.
Abiotic Factors: non-living components of a biosphere
Biotic Factors: all living components of a biosphere from single celled beings an onward
Symbiosis: interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.
IT TAKES A LONG TIME FOR SPECIES TO ADAPT AND CHANGE
Stromatolites: are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mounds built of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia. Stromatolites were originally formed by the growth of layer upon layer of cyanobacteria, a single-celled photosynthesizing microbe.
Prokaryotes: about 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
How do we know how old fossils are?
Radiometric Dating: The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
Radioactive isotope: an unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
Half-Life: the amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Uranium-238: has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Potassium-40: has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Some Animals are finding ways to PHOTOSYNTHESIZE
Some animals have learned how to photosynthesize by adopting chloroplasts.
Cyanobacteria: phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cryptobiotic (biological) soil crust: a living groundcover that forms the foundation of desert plant life.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria: are microorganisms present in the soil or in plant roots that change nitrogen gases from the atmosphere into solid nitrogen compounds that plants can use in the soil.
Nitrogen fixing bacteria: contain symbiotic bacteria called rhizobia within nodules in their root systems, producing nitrogen compounds that help the plant to grow and compete with other plants. When the plant dies, the fixed nitrogen is released, making it available to other plants; this helps to fertilize the soil.
The endosymbiotic theory attempts to explain the origins of organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells. ... From prokaryote to eukaryote
Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria, and chloroplasts from cyanobacteria
Author: Jazmin Gannon
A place to grow