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chapter 8, food
Food is a source of:
Nutrient: a component in food that the body needs to grow, develop, and repair itself
Macronutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals that organisms must ingest in small amounts to maintain health
Carbohydrates: fruits and veggies, grains, legumes
Simple Carbohydrates/ Simple sugar (Monosaccaride): a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar subunit; an example is glucose
Complex Carbohydrate (Polysaccharide): a carbohydrate made of many simple sugars linked together, a polymer of monosaccharides; examples are starch and glycogen
Glycogen: a complex animal carbohydrate made of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy, a type of starch
Fiber: a complex plant carbohydrate that is not digestible by humans
Starch: a complex plant carbohydrate made of linked chains of glucose molecules; a source of stored energy
45%-65% of your calories come from carbohydrates
Calories: the amount of energy released when nutrients are broken down in measure in units called calories, more calories means more energy from the food, if you do not use the energy it gets stored for later
Proteins: Meats, Dairy, Legumes, also in nuts, grains, and veggies
Essential amino acids: the body needs 20 amino acids, 9 have to come from food, the rest can be assembled by cells
Complete vs incomplete protein: meats have all 9 amino acids while most vegetables and plants do not, you need a wider variety of food to get all the amino acids
Fats: Dairy, meats, oils
Unsaturated fats: Liquid at room temperature. Have at least one unsaturated bond in a place where hydrogen can be added to a molecule.
Saturated fats: have all the hydrogen the carbon atoms can hold
Triglycerides: the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat. An ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids.
Omega−3 fatty acids: The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), found inplant oils, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), both commonly found in marine oils. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids.
In a healthy diet 20 35% of your calories come from fat
Cholesterol: a waxy fat like substance, we need some cholesterol to build cell membranes and nerve tissue.
Trans Fat: made when manufactures add hydrogen tot eh fat molecules in vegetable oils. The food lasts longer but is hard to digest.
Metabolism: when your body uses food, a series of chemical reactions that occur inside your cells, as a result, energy is released
Vitamin: an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
Water soluble vitamins:
Antioxidants: help protect healthy cells from the damage caused by the environment.
Fat soluble vitamins:
Mineral: an inorganic mineral required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance: calcium, potassium, iron, zinc
Inorganic elements not synthesized by animal bodies:
Electrolytes: salts that help our muscles contract and water balance
Nutrient Dense Foods: the super foods: hemp, spirulina, chia, turmeric, reishi, gogi berries, aloe vera...
we eat and drink water to
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