Types of GYMNOSPERMS
Angiosperms produce flower
Gymnosperms have odd seed container such as pine cones
Around 550 species of conifer trees exist worldwide and make up the largest group of gymnosperms. Conifers may be evergreen or deciduous
Examples of evergreen conifers include:
Their cones may be hard and dry, such as with pine and spruce trees, or fleshy, like with junipers.
Some conifers lose their needles or scaly leaves in winter:
Conifers tend to inhabit colder and drier habitats around the world.
Plants adapt through chemical signals
The three key pigments in photosynthesis: chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and β-carotene, to absorb darker frequencies of light a plant may produce more pigments that absorb dimmer light and become darker or appear red.
Auxin hormones help plants detect light, however, auxins are toxic to plants in large concentrations; they are most toxic to dicots and less so to monocots.
Auxins are used to produce seedless fruit.
Synthetic auxin herbicides, including 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, have been developed and used for weed control, 2,4-D is a synthetic auxin.
The defoliant Agent Orange, used extensively by British forces in the Malayan Emergency and American forces in the Vietnam War, was a mix of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The compound 2,4-D is still in use and is thought to be safe, but 2,4,5-T was more or less banned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1979. The dioxin TCDD is an unavoidable contaminant produced in the manufacture of 2,4,5-T. As a result of the integral dioxin contamination, 2,4,5-T has been implicated in leukemia, miscarriages, birth defects, liver damage, and other diseases.
Talking to Plants
Can a plant grow inside a person?
WHere does Honey come from
Animals that PHOTOSYNTHESIZE
Gardening for Fire Resistance
Many forms of forest Destruction are Caused by People
Someone who intentionally started fires:
Ways to Put Out a Fire
Carbon Trapping Technology
Carbon is in Methane
Bonus: New form of Plastic
Types of Fruit
Pome - most of the fruit is formed from the receptacle (under the flower) eg pear, apple
Drupe - has fleshy fruit and a single seed with a hard endocarp eg peaches, coconut and olives
Berry - has many seeds eg tomatoes, peppers and cucumber but not strawberries!
Aggregate fruit - develop from one flower with many pistils eg strawberries.
Legumes - split along two sides eg beans, peas
Capsules - are dry fruit that have several carpels eg orchids
Nuts - have one seed and a hard pericarp eg acorns
Grains - have the fruit and seed joined closely together eg wheat, rice, barley.
Multiple fruits - come from several different flowers joined together eg pineapples.
Our Garden Progress
Xylem and Phloem:
Xylem transports water and soluble mineral nutrients from roots to various parts of the plant. It is responsible for replacing water lost through transpiration and photosynthesis. Phloem translocates sugars made by photosynthetic areas of plants to storage organs like roots, tubers or bulbs.
Herbaceous Plant: Soft parts, no wood
Woody Plant: Can grow taller and longer
Annual: Lives one season
Perennial: Lives several years
These Hormones are Transported within the Plant
What do Pumpkins and Watermelon Have in Common?
They are both cucurbits: squash, pumpkin, zucchini, some gourds
The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera.
Other Plant Families
Scientific name: Amaryllidaceae
Common name: Aamaryllis family
Onions, leeks, chives, garlic, shallots
Scientific name: Apiaceae
Common name: Carrot family
Carrot, parsnip, celery, fennel, parsley, celeriac
Scientific name: Asteraceae
Common name: Sunflower family
Endive, artichoke, lettuce, celtuce, sunflower, salsify, dandelion, chicory, radicchio
Scientific name: Brassicaceae
Common name: Mustard family
Broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collard, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, radish, rutabaga, turnip, watercress
Scientific name: Chenopodiaceae
Common name: Goosefoot family
Beet, chard, spinach, amaranth, quinoa
Scientific name: Cucurbitaceae
Common name: Gourd family
Cucumber, melon, pumpkin, squash, watermelon, summer squash, zucchini, gourd
Scientific name: Fabaceae
Common name: Pea family
Bean, Peanut, Pea, lentil, soybean, alfalfa, cowpea
Scientific name: Pocaceae
Common name: Grass family
Corn, millet, rice, barley, wheat, rye, oats, sorghum
Scientific name: Polygonaceae
Common name: Knotweed family
Scientific name: Solanaceae
Common name: Nightshade family
Eggplant, pepper, potato, tomato, tomatillo, tobacco
Xylem and Phloem
Rose family (Rosaceae)