Let's Review that final
1. What is a biomolecule? They are also called the four major classes of organic
A biomolecule or biological molecule is one of Life's building blocks.
Examples are: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates: short term energy storage: sugars, starch, and cellulose.
CHO (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen)
Lipids: fats, make cell membrane lipid bilayer, long term energy storage.
CHO (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen)
Proteins: chains of amino acids, Provide: structure, movement, muscle, hair, collagen,
CHONS (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur)
Nucleic Acids: store and transmit genetic information: DNA, RNA
DNA is a double helix
RNA is a singe strand
CHNOP (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous)
All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers),
the monomers are called "nucleotides."
Nucleotide: a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.
Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
The five monomers or nucleotides are: uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine
Nucleotides in DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases:
Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine.
RNA contains uracil, instead of thymine
6 elements needed for life: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur
2. Why do they (biomolecules) matter?
Biomolecules are essential for life, they are essential to some biological process such
as cell division, nutrient transport, or development.
Sugars in fruit, starch in roots (potatoes, yams), and cellulose in plants (celery)
Seed oils, plant oils, waxes ( the waxy cuticle that keeps plants from dehydrating)
Chitin: the protein that makes insect exoskeleton, crustacean shells, and mushrooms
Keratin: the protein in skin hair, nails
Enzymes: Amylase: found in saliva, breaks down starch molecules into
smaller glucose and maltose molecules
Nucleic Acids: DNA, RNA, instructions of how to make biomolecules that the
living being needs to do their work
3. What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?
The protons and the neutrons make up the center of the atom called the nucleus
and the electrons fly around above the nucleus in a small cloud.
A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest
fundamental unit of a chemical compound
Types of bonds:
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that
involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between
atoms and is a type of chemical bond that
generates two oppositely charged ions. Usually found in Metals.
A polar bond is a covalent bond between two atoms where the
electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed.
This causes the molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment
where one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative.
Carbon is ideal for sharing electrons - forming covalent bonds
4. How does an enzyme help with digestion and metabolism?
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and speed up metabolism.
The effectiveness of an enzyme can be affected by temperature, pH, concentration
of enzyme, and concentration of substrate
Types of Enzymes:
If a word ends with -ase, it is probably an enzyme
5. Does an enzyme need to fit into a specific space or “doorway” to work?
Our review calls it the lock and key model.
Enzymes are specific. Only molecules with the correct shape can fit into the
enzyme. Just like only one key can open a lock, only one type of enzyme can speed
up a specific reaction. This is called the lock and key model.
6. How do we maintain homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between
interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Five body functions that monitor homeostasis are: temperature, glucose, blood
pressure, toxins, and pH.
Examples from class:
Examples in humans:
7. What is osmosis?
a. How water moves into a cell
b. A protein
c. A type of DNA strand
d. The body’s ability to produce sweat
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a more concentrated solution, up a concentration gradient.
Osmotic Balance: Osmoregulation controls this balance of water/salt concentrations.
Salts go from high concentration to low concentration, salt wants to get in the water
Water moves from low solute to high solute, water wants to dilute the salt
8. What does the figure below represent?
d. Amino Acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms
Double Helix: two chains that coil around each other form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
9. Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level.
In other words, we have groups of cells that make up organs, that make up bodies,
all by working together and sharing energy.
How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
(choose the best answer, for a biology exam)
a. Humans evolved thumbs only because burritos exist
b. Cells in a body do different types of work by having shapes that help them do the
work (hair cell vs skin cell)
c. Veins are shaped like tunnels to transport nutrients
d. B and C
10. The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
molecules, a hydrophilic (likes water) phosphate head, and a hydrophobic (dislikes
water) tail consisting of two fatty acid chains, this is what the cell membrane is made
It naturally allows non-polar particles (fat-soluble molecules) like oxygen (O2) and
carbon dioxide (CO2) to move down the concentration gradient: from high
concentration to low concentration. Some proteins allow molecules in without needing
to use energy because they are following the concentration gradient flow (high to low).
How does the cell membrane move particles up the concentration gradient/ from low
concentration to high concentration?
b. active transport proteins in the cell membrane use energy,
(ATP, cell energy) to move the molecule
c. Mystical doorways with magical powers
Nutrient Transport: The blood circulatory system (cardiovascular system) delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. It consists of the heart and the blood vessels running through the entire body.
The arteries carry blood away from the heart; the veins carry it back to the heart.
Fats and fat soluble nutrients can move directly across the lipid membrane.
Water, gasses, and other very small molecules can diffuse through the pores of the cell.
Active Transport: Moving against a gradient. The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy (ATP).
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate, money in the cell world, molecular unit of currency,
organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells
Diffusion: is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Facilitated diffusion: Stuff getting through the cell membrane through a specialized door. The passive movement of molecules along their concentration gradient, guided by the presence of another molecule – usually an integral membrane protein forming a pore or channel. May or may not require energy from ATP.
11. Cells multiply through mitosis and meiosis, what is the difference?
Mitosis: The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting
of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, Some textbooks list five, breaking prophase into an early phase (called prophase) and a late phase (called
prometaphase). Normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains
a complete copy of the parental chromosomes.
Mitosis makes two cells
Stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
OK, so PPMAT...
In early prophase, the cell starts to break down some structures and build others up,
setting the stage for division of the chromosomes.
In late prophase (sometimes also called prometaphase), the mitotic spindle begins to
capture and organize the chromosomes.
In metaphase, the spindle has captured all the chromosomes and lined them up at the
middle of the cell, ready to divide.
In anaphase, the sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled towards
opposite ends of the cell.
In telophase, the cell is nearly done dividing, and it starts to re-establish its normal
structures as cytokinesis (division of the cell contents) takes place.
Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two new cells
A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Cells move from meiosis I to meiosis II without copying their DNA. Meiosis II is a shorter and simpler process than meiosis I, and you may find it helpful to think of meiosis II as “mitosis for haploid cells."
Haploid: half the chromosomes
Prophase II: chromosomes condense and the nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase II: the chromosomes line up individually along the metaphase plate.
Anaphase II: the sister chromatids separate and are pulled towards opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase II: nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense
Cytokinesis: splits the chromosome sets into new cells, forming the final products of meiosis: four haploid cells
12. What is a haploid cell? How is it different from a diploid cell?
Haploid is the term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes.
A normal eukaryotic organism is composed of diploid cells, one set of chromosomes
from each parent. However, after meiosis, the number of chromosomes in gametes
Diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes. This is double the haploid
chromosome number. Each pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell is considered to be
one homologous chromosome set
13. How do organisms grow and develop?
Cell division and nutrient transport, metabolism
14. What is a stem cell?
a. A cell that only exists in plants
b. A cell that can turn into many different types of cells
c. A blood cell
d. All of the above
Cells become specialized through differentiation
15. How can stem cell therapy change medicine in the near future?
Organ transplant, regeneration of organs using stem cells
Embryonic stem cell: Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the
inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. Human
embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they
consist of 50–150 cells.
First we are a blastocyst:
Fertilization usually takes place in a fallopian tube that links an ovary to the uterus.
If the fertilized egg successfully travels down the fallopian tube and implants in the
uterus, an embryo starts growing.
The embryo usually reaches the uterine cavity about 5 or 6 days after fertilization.
Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that
have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic—and then donated for
research purposes with informed consent of the donors.
It is not generally considered ethical to use embryonic stem cells, you be the judge,
we also have somatic stem cells.
Pluripotent: capable of giving rise to several different cell types, can give rise to
all of the cell types that make up the body
Totipotent: cells can form all the cell types in a body, even placental cells.
Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization
are the only cells that are totipotent.
Multipotent: cells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited
than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells are considered multipotent.
Somatic Stem Cell: Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues,
including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels,
skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium,
and testis. They are thought to reside in a specific area of
each tissue (called a "stem cell niche").
Multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and
regenerate damaged tissues.
16. In botany, a stoma, also called a stomata, is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves,
stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
They will help the plant stay cool and hydrated in the heat of summer by holding
water in, that are the stoma doing for plants?
a. Maintain homeostasis in the plant
b. Absorb water
c. Attract pollinators
d. Removing waste
17. What do DNA and RNA stand for?
a. Donuts with apples and river news updates
b. Do not adapt and really neat antiques
c. deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid
d. None of the above
18. DNA is made of nucleotides. What are the four different nucleotides?
a. Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine
b. Tomato, cacao, apple, guava
c. Tyrosine, Cytonine, Alabasternine, Goosefeathernine
d. None of these
19. What is an example of an input and output of matter and the
transfer and transformation of energy?
a. Plants absorbing light to make sugars through photosynthesis
b. Animals eating food and digesting it
c. Plankton photosynthesizing and being the base of the entire food chain of the planet
d. All of the above
20. The initial source of energy for all organisms is the _____Sun___________.
21. What do mushrooms do?
b. Absorb petroleum
c. Replacewood, disposable items, packing materials
d. All of the above
22. What is this?
a. A trophic level pyramid and It shows the position of an organism in a food chain,
this is how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
b. A food pyramid
c. A chart of what we need to eat more of
d. None of the above
23. Which organisms produce their own food?
c. Primary consumers
d. Secondary consumers
Auto -Self, troph-Make, one being makes without needing another (makes cells)
Hetero- Two/other, troph- Make, need two beings to make/ grow/ live
Primary consumer: Insect eating grass, or a fish eating algae, a vegetarian being
Secondary Consumer: whoever eats the insect or the fish
Plants are autotrophs, they make new cells using the Sun and CO2 from the air, except those carnivorous plants, they do both... those mixotrophs
24. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
a. People should be exercising 3 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes
b. Aerobic means it needs oxygen while anaerobic does not need oxygen
c. Some molecules like to lift weight
d. One is in animals while the other is in plants
Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration: no oxygen used, examples: alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation and in decomposition of organic matter.
25. What happens to ecosystems when the environment changes?
a. All living beings try their best to adapt and survive, they might move to
another area if possible, they try a different food source and adopt orphaned babies
b. Nothing, it all just evolves and changes really fast, it is the miracle of life
d. All of the above
26. When we breathe out we release carbon dioxide (CO2), plants use CO2 to make
sugars through photosynthesis and release Oxygen (O2) in the process,
we need oxygen to live. This is part of the carbon cycle.
Which human activity would have the greatest impact of the carbon cycle?
b. Gold mining
c. Petroleum extraction
Also hurting algae and plankton
27. True or False: Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between
50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere.
28. Which of the following could increase conservation of water in New Mexico?
a. Improve systems of agricultural irrigation
b. Reduce the amount of land covered by grass and lawns
c. Reduce residential water use
d. All of the above
29. How do we connect art and biology? What are some ways in which we do this
and what are some ways in which we could do this?
Biology is full of art inspiration, there are free art supplies in this world as long as we
source them in a sustainable way. Biology can teach us about resource sharing and
egalitarian communities through symbiotic relationships.
30. We have technology that can save the planet, do you think we will start using it more?
What are some changes that you see in the near future?
Biofuels, solar energy wood may be replaced by mycellium (mushroom) molded
materials, stem cell research, 3d printing with bioplastics, the use of hemp to make
textile, fuel, paper, food, cooking oil, bioplastics, biomimicry for architecture
and product design...
Thank you for reviewing!