Happy Labor Day, Sept 3
Last week we covered the beginning of energy production, autotrophs make their own energy by turning sunlight and carbon into sugar while heterotrophs eat other living beings to stay alive.
Photosynthesis is the chemical reaction through which sunlight is transformed into sugar to use as: 1). usable energy to power cellular functions 2). stored energy that is kept in oils as potential energy and 3). some energy is used as building blocks for cell structures. The molecule that cells use to power energy requiring functions is called ATP.
We learned about Algae, a single celled organism that is not a plant but does photosynthesize. It is a protist. Algae can help us as food, fertilizer, and biofuel. it forms a big part of the base of the planetary food chain along with plankton.
Algae can be grown in open ponds and then the cells can be broken and separated into many components (pg 86). We can get oil for biodiesel, the carbohydrates can be fermented and used to produce ethanol which can be burned as fuel or electricity, the proteins can be used to feed people or livestock and the leftover biomass can be used as an organic fertilizer or burned for heat or electricity. It is good to consider our alternative, renewable energy sources.
Energy many be measured in joules, a joule is equal to the energy transferred to an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre.
A megajoule is 1,000,000.00 joules
Producing one megajoule of Biodiesel removes 183 Kilograms of the greenhouse gas CO2 from the air while producing one megajoule of energy in Ethanol from corn adds 81-84 Kilograms of CO2 to the air.
We breathe out CO2 and plants use it to photosynthesize, a by product of photosynthesis is oxygen and we need a balance of chemicals in the air because breathing in too much CO2 is not good for us.
Here are some of the common symptoms of too much CO2, we call it respiratory acidosis:
We could die in an unbalanced environment.
current energy sources in the us
of that 7% that is renewable energy
think about the energy that is consumed to produce our food
energy for us, from food
Essential nutrients: substances that cannot be synthesized by the body and need to be consumed, pre-assembled through the diet, this includes certain amino acids and fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Essential amino acids: there are eight amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and needs to get from food, some books list 9 amino acids, these are:
In nuts, seeds, eggs, meats, whole grains, seaweed (algae)
Enzymes: We use enzymes to break down food , an enzyme is a protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, they accelerate the activation energy
Activation Energy: The energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed, enzymes reduce activation energy to speed up chemical reactions
Substrate: is the molecule that the enzyme binds to
Active site: is the part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate
Catabolic Reaction: any chemical reaction the breaks down molecules
Anabolic Reaction: any chemical reaction the combines simple molecules to build more complex molecules
Digestion: we call the process of breaking down food digestion, the point of digestion is to extract energy from food and absorb it, and use it
Enzyme Names: some names include pepsin, rennin, and trypsin, most enzyme names end in "ase"
Different types of enzymes can break down different nutrients:
Coenzyme: a small organic molecule, such as a vitamin , required to activate and enzyme
Cofactor: An inorganic substance, such as a metal ion, required to activate an enzyme
Vitamin: an organic molecule required in small amounts for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance
Water soluble vitamins:
Fat soluble vitamins:
Mineral: an inorganic mineral required by organisms for normal growth, reproduction, and tissue maintenance: calcium, potassium, iron, zinc
Inorganic elements not synthesized by animal bodies:
Denatured: shape is changed
Metabolism: all biochemical reactions hat happen in an organism reactions that break down food molecules and reactions that build new cell structures
Insulin: a hormone that os secreted by the pancreas, it regulates blood sugar. It is also a protein, a chain of amino acids that is produced by the pancreas. Insulin binds to cells in the body and enables them to absorb sugar from the blood.
Difficulty with digesting carbs:
Diabetes type 1: cannot make insulin
Diabetes type 2: the receptors on the cells do not respond very well to insulin leading to an elevated blood sugar level
Facilitated Diffusion: Glucose enters the cell throgh facilitated diffusion
Illness related to nutrient ABSORPTION
How to help your body absorb more nutrients:
stem cells can help us repair tissues:
Tissue: an organized group of different cell types that work together to carry out a particular function.
Stem Cells: immature cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types
Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells): stems cells located in tissues that help maintain and regenerate those tissues
Multipotent: a cell with the ability to differentiate into a limited number of cell types in the body.
Embryonic Stem Cells: Stem cells that make up an early embryo which can differentiate into nearly every cell type in the body
Pluripotent: a cell with the ability to differentiate into nearly any cell in the body
The research is done on human fetal cells.
Blastocyst: a stage of embryonic development in which the embryo is a hollow ball of cells (or thought to be). Researchers can derive embryonic stem cell lines during the blastocyst stage.
HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY