We have gone over a few ways in which cells have learned to work together all on their own and have even adopted photosynthetic algae to move in the direction of being photosynthetic themselves. Sometimes we apply pressure for the DNA to be in a species that it would never want to be in.
We see if the DNA is in the plant through PCR Electrophoresis:
genetic engineering is different from plant breeding
it takes a long time for plants and species to adapt and change
Radiometric Dating: The use of radioactive isotopes as a measure for determining the age of a rock or fossil
Radioactive isotope: an unstable form of an element that decays into another element by radiation, that is, by emitting energetic particles
Half-Life: the amount of time it takes for one half of a substance to decay
Uranium-238: has a half life of 4.5 billion years
Potassium-40: has a half life of 1.3 billion years
Stromatolites: are about 3.5 billion years old, calcareous mound built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria and trapped sediment, found in Precambrian rocks as the earliest known fossils, and still being formed in lagoons in Australasia.
Prokaryotes: about 3.5 billion years ago, a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.
what alters genes
Mutagen: any chemical or physical agent that can damage DNA by changing its nucleotide sequence
Carcinogen: Any chemical agent that causes cancer by damaging DNA, carcinogens are a type of mutagen.
Proto-oncogene: a gene that codes for a protein that helps cells divide normally, signal cells to progress through the cell cycle at the appropriate time. Mutation in these genes causes them to be overstimulated, causing too much cell division,
Tumor Suppressor Genes: signal cells to pause the cell to fix mistakes, mutation in these genes cause them to be under expressed, allowing damaged cells to divide inappropriately. Genes that code for proteins that monitor and check cell cycle progression. When these genes mutate, tumor suppressor proteins lose normal function.
Oncogene: a mutated and overactive form of a proto-oncogene. Oncogene drive cells to divide continually.
Meiosis: A specialized type of cell division that generates unique haploid gametes. Generates sex cells.
Gamete: specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome, sperm are male gametes, egg are female gametes
Haploid: having only one copy of every chromosome
Mitosis: a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Gene: A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene Expression: The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.
Genotype: Genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype: the physical qualities of an organism including observable or not observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences.
Recessive Allele: an allele that reveals itself in the phenotype only if the organism has two copies of that allele
Dominant Allele: an allele that can mask the presence of a recessive allele
Heterozygous: having two different alleles
Homozygous: having two identical alleles
Punnett Square: a diagram used to determine probabilities of offspring having particular genotypes, given the genotypes of the parents.
Carrier: an individual who is heterozygous for a particular gene of interest, and therefore can pass on the recessive allele without showing any of its effects
Polygenic trait: a trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene
Autosomes: paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes
Sex Chromosomes: Paired chromosomes that differ between males and females, XX in females, XY in males
Y Chromosome: of two chromosomes in humans. The presence of a Y chromosome signals the male developmental pathway during fetal development
X Chromosomes: one of the two sex chromosomes in humans
gender diversity affirmed in ancient cultures
gender diversity was recognized
In addition to zachar, male, and nekevah, female, there are four other genders/sexes that the Rabbis recognize:
gender diversity in native american tribes
Osh-Tisch, spiritual leader and warrior of Crow Nation was born a male and married a female, but adorned himself in women’s clothing and lived daily life as a female.
We’wha (1849-1896), of the Zuni nation. We’wha was biologically male and engendered with a female spirit.
"The Two Spirit culture of Native Americans was one of the first things Europeans worked to destroy and cover up. According to people like American artist George Catlin, the Two Spirit tradition had to be eradicated before it could go into history books. Catlin said the tradition: “must be extinguished before it can be more fully recorded.”
"Spanish Catholic monks destroyed most of the Aztec codices to eradicate traditional Native beliefs and history, including those that told of the Two Spirit tradition.” As a result, Native Americans were forced to dress and act according to newly designated gender roles."
In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca, a muxe is an assigned male at birth individual who dresses and behaves in ways otherwise associated with the female gender; they may be seen as a third gender. Some marry women and have children while others choose men as sexual or romantic partners.
gender diversity has been part of humanity for as long as we have existed, sex of an organism is not as simple as xy vs xx and gender is not as matter of body parts so all we can do is respect the identity of the people around us
Biology book ch 11, pg 209
Meiosis: a specialized type of cell division that generates genetically unique haploid gametes.
Zygote: a cell that is capable of developing into an adult organism. Formed when an egg is fertilizes by sperm.
Cross-over: gene swapping between maternal and paternal chromosomes
Recombination: the stage in meiosis where maternal and paternal chromosomes pair and physically exchange DNA segments
Independent Assortment: the principle that alleles of different genes are distributed independently of one another during meiosis. If one gene ends up in one gamete, the other gene is likely to end up in another gamete.
Polygenic trait: a trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene.
Multifactorial Inheritance: an interaction between genes and the environment that contributes to a phenotype or trait
X-linked trait: a phenotype determined by an allele on an x chromosome
Incomplete dominance: a form of inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive
Codominance: a form of inheritance in which both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype
Mutation has most likely led to diversity