ocean food chain
canada food chain
under the ice
Sympagic fauna: include bacteria and fungi, as well as animals like flatworms and crustaceans
Phytoplankton: plankton consisting of microscopic plants
Zooplankton: plankton consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals.
Benthos: the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
what is a protein?
cell membrane transport
Glycolysis: no oxygen needed, anaerobic, the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
Intermediate stage: Pyruvates enter mitochondria, release CO2
Citric Acid Cycle: produces ATP, NADH (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
Electron Transport Chain: Produce more ATP, in the mitochondrion is the site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes.
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
Sponges filter water for food
types of fish
types of shark
how protein is made in a cell
Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains.
There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein.
The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: transcription and translation.
Transcription: takes the information encoded in DNA and encodes it into mRNA, which heads out of the cell's nucleus and into the cytoplasm.
Translation: the mRNA works with a ribosome and tRNA to synthesize proteins.
RNA: ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
Nucleic Acid: a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
Nucleotide: a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.
Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
The four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine or uracil
adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). ...
These are known as base pairs. Uracil is only present in RNA, replacing thymine.
The main biological function of a nitrogenous base is to bond nucleic acids together. A nitrogenous base owes its basic properties to the lone pair of electrons of a nitrogen atom.
Each nucleotide base can hydrogen-bond with a specific partner base in a process known as complementary base pairing: Cytosine forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine, and adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine. These hydrogen-bonded nitrogenous bases are often referred to as base pairs.
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
RNA polymerase: is an enzyme that is responsible for copying a DNA sequence into an RNAsequence, duyring the process of transcription.
mRNA: Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Ribosome: made of rRNA, The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis. Ribosomes link amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA molecules.
Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA): is a type of RNA molecule that helps decode a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence into a protein. tRNAs function at specific sites in the ribosome during translation, which is a process that synthesizes a protein from an mRNA molecule.
Codon: a sequence of three nucleotides that together form a unit of genetic code in a DNA or RNA molecule.
Complementary Antiocodon: The anticodon region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA. During translation , the bases of theanticodon form complementary base pairs witht the bases of the codon by forming the appropriate hydrogen bonds.
Nucleotides: a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
Stop Codon: (or terminationcodon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins. Proteins are based on polypeptides, which are unique sequences of amino acids.
pigments in the ocean
Chromatophores are pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells, or groups of cells, found in a wide range of animals including amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans and cephalopods. Mammals and birds, in contrast, have a class of cells called melanocytes for coloration.
Mature chromatophores are grouped into subclasses based on their colour (more properly "hue")
The key enzyme in melanin synthesis is tyrosinase.
Tyrosinase also impairs sight, taste, and smell in octopus ink
When this protein is defective, no melanin can be generated resulting in certain types of albinism.
Nematocysts: a specialized cell in the tentacles of a jellyfish or other coelenterate, containing a barbed or venomous coiled thread that can be projected in self-defense or to capture prey
Nematocysts are produced by nematoblasts, or cnidoblasts, and are used for capturing and paralyzing prey or for defense. Each nematocyst contains a coiled, hollow thread that can have barbs or spines and often contains poison.
The Octopus and cuttlefish
artist memory jog
Ernst Haeckel: Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species.
how mammals live in the ocean
Dolphins that live in freshwater
eco-friendly building materials that do not kill the Amazon Rainforest
what is sound?