ctenophora: Comb jellie, not quite a jellyfish: Ctenophora comprise a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide. They are notable for the groups of cilia they use for swimming, and they are the largest animals to swim with the help of cilia.
what is coral?
Coral Biology. Although many corals resemble plants, they are actually members of the animal phylum Cnidaria. Most corals are colonial, which means that each coral is made up of many individual polyps connected by living tissue (the coenosarc).
Cnidaria: Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic environments: they are a predominantly marine species
The first coral reefs date from the early Ordovician of about 500 million years ago, and their form at the time differed significantly from that of corals today, which, following, the mass extinction 240 million years ago at the end of the Permian period, first appeared in the middle of the Triassic period.
Brachiopods: are marine animals belonging to their own phylum, Brachiopoda, of the animal kingdom. Modern brachiopods occupy a variety of sea-bed habitats ranging from the Tropics to the cold waters of the Arctic and, especially, Antarctic.
notes from the videos
Cambrian Extinction was about 488 million years ago
Ostracoderms: armoured, jawless, fishlikevertebrates that emerged during the early part of the Paleozoic Era (542–251 million years ago)
Plants got bigger and absorbed more Carbon Dioxide, and there was an Ice Age
Devonian period 419 million years ago (mya), there were Devonian Forests 360 mya
Permian period 298 million years ago
Permian-Tirassic Extiction: 252 million years ago
Trilobites: some still survived, they survived about 4 mass extinctions:
Trilobites used chitin as a protein, just like mushrooms, the shell was chitin and calcite
coral fossils tell us about climate change
geologic time period concept map
the oldest forests in the world
Tarkine Forest, Tasmania, Australia:
Here you find some of the oldest animals: Marsupials
tasmanian devil is struggling with an illness
devil facial tumour disease (DFTD)
This most likely has to do with lack of genetic diversity
Genetic Drift: variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
Population Bottleneck: A population bottleneck or genetic bottleneck is a sharp reduction in the size of a population due to environmental events or human activities.
related to the quoll
marsupial phylogenetic tree
Some marsupials stayed in South America, remember Gondwanaland? They were connected to Australia
monotremes are older than marsupials
Gene flow: the movement of alleles from one population to another, which may increase the genetic diversity of a population.
Speciation: the genetic divergence of populations, a barrier to gene flow, leading overtime to reproductive isolation and the formation of a new species
Reproductive Isolation: mechanisms that prevent mating and gene flo between members of a different species
Founder Effect: the reduced genetic diversity that results when a population is descended from a small number of colonizing ancestors.
charles darwin in the galapagos islands
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: the principle that in a non-evolving population, both allele and genotype frequencies remain constant from one generation to the next
Inbreeding: mating between closely related individuals, it does not increase the allele frequency within the population but it does increase the proportion of homozygous individuals to heterozygotes
Insects that you will find everywhere, in different forms
Orthoptera: straight leathery wing, grasshoppers, katydid, cockroach
Lepidoptera: Butterflies and moths, important pollinators
Coleoptera: Beetles, means hard shell wing
Siphonaptera: Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera. As external parasites of mammals and birds, they live by consuming the blood of their hosts.
Spiders are everywhere
spider-like crab lives on trees
Scientists in India have discovered a new species of crab that lives entirely on trees in the Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot.
land dwelling crabs
forest water cycle
Ancient DNA Reveals Late Pleistocene Existence of Ostriches in Indian Sub-Continent
birds of prey