Hydrogen Bond- a weak bond between two molecules with and electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.
Polar Covalent Bond- a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Surface Tension- the tension of the surface film of a liquid caused by the attraction of the particles in the surface layer
Capillary action: Capillary action describes the spontaneous flow of a liquid into a narrow tube or porous material. This movement does not require the force of gravity to occur. In fact, it often acts in opposition to gravity.
Refraction: is the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another or from a gradual change in the medium.
Reflection: the throwing back by a body or surface of light, heat, or sound without absorbing it.
Electromagnetic Spectrum: the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Visible Range: The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
A typical human eye will respond to wavelengths from about 380 to 740 nanometers.
Chromosome: is a single, large DNA molecule that is wrapped around proteins; chromosomes are located in the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells
DNA: is the molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring.
Nucleotides: the building blocks of DNA
Double helix: the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together
Hydrogen bonds: or base pairing hold the strands together
Polymer: made up of building block molecules
Genetic Code: the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
DNA Profile: a visual representation of a person's unique DNA sequence
Genome: one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
Amino acids: The building locks of proteins, there are 20 different amino acids
Protein: A macro molecule made up of repeating sub units known as amino acids, which determine the shape and function of a protein. proteins play critical roles in organisms.
Gene: a sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene expression: the process of using DNA instructions to make proteins
Phenotype: the physical attributes of an organism including observable and internal, non observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences
Regulatory sequence: the part of the gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of a protein produced
Coding Sequence: part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, identity, shape, and function of proteins.