Vocabulary review: August 30, 2018
Scientific method includes:
Hypothesis: the starting point of your investigation, a proposed explanation based on limited evidence
Question: what you are exploring, it is not in the book, but it literally means question
Experiment: a way to explore your question and test your hypothesis
Experimental group: the people or beings of subjects that you are studying, the group that experiences the experimental intervention
Control group: a group that does not experience the experimental intervention
Placebo: fake treatment
Placebo effect: effect that we see when members of a control group display a measurable response to a placebo
Independent variable: factor being deliberately changed in the experiment
Dependent variable: measured result of an experiment, seen in both the experimental group and the control group
Sample size: number or subjects in the experiment
Result: measurable by units, what you learned
Evidence based conclusion: your result and seeing how it relates to your hypothesis
Scientific theory: a hypothesis that is supported by many years of rigorous testing and thousands of experiments
Five functional traits of life:
Growth: And increase in the organism's size as the number of cell making up the organism increases.
Reproduction: the process of producing new organisms, offspring are similar but not necessarily identical to their parents in general structure, function, and properties.
Homeostasis: organisms maintain a stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes.
Sense and respond to stimuli: organisms respond to stimuli in many ways, they may move toward a food source r away from a threatening predator.
Obtain and use energy: all living beings require an input of energy to power their activities. organisms obtain energy from food (which they either produce themselves or consume from the environment). Chemical reactions convert that energy into usable forms. The sum total of all these reactions is metabolism.
Review of chemistry, important terms:
WHAT IS IN THE CELL? ORGANELLES
WAYS OF CELL COMMUNICATION:
Endosymbiosis: the theory that free-living prokaryotic cells engulfed (ate) other free-living prokaryotic cells billions of years ago, forming eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
DNA: DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
DNA: is the molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring.
Chromosome: is a single, large DNA molecule that is wrapped around proteins; chromosomes are located in the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells
Nucleotides: the building blocks of DNA
Double helix: the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together
Hydrogen bonds: or base pairing hold the strands together
Polymer: made up of building block molecules
Genetic Code: the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
DNA Profile: a visual representation of a person's unique DNA sequence
DNA polymerase: an enzyme that “reads” the sequence of a DNA strand and helps to add complementary nucleotides to form a new strand during DNA replication
DNA Replication: the natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule
Coding regions: sequences of DNA that serve as instructions for making proteins
Noncoding Regions: DNA sequences that do not hold instructions to make proteins
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): a laboratory technique used to replicate and thus amplify a specific DNA segment
Gel electrophoresis: a laboratory technique that separates fragments of DNA by size
Genome: one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
MITOSIS IS: A PROCESS OF CELL DIVISION: a type of cell division that results in two cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Gene: A sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene Expression: The process of using DNA instructions to make proteins.
Genotype: Genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype: the physical qualities of an organism including observable or not observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences.
CELL DIVISION VOCABULARY
Transcription: The first stage of gene expression, during which cells produce molecules of messenger mRNA from the instruction encoded within the genes
Translation: The second stage of gene expression reads mRNA sequences and assembles the corresponding amino acids to make a protein
Messenger mRNA: the RNA copy on an original DNA sequence made during transcription
RNA Polymerase: the enzyme that accomplishes transcription. RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a complementary strand of mRNA
Ribosome: the cellular machinery that assembles proteins during the process of translation
Codon: a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
Anticodon: The part of tRNA molecule that binds to complementary mRNA codon
Transfer RNA (tRNA): A type of RNA that helps ribosomes assemble chains of amino acids during translation
Genetic Code: The particular amino acids specified by particular mRNA codon
EVERY GENE HAS TWO PARTS
Regulatory Sequence: the part of a gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of protein produced.
Coding Sequence: The part of the gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, Coding sequences determine the identity, shape, and function of proteins.
Cell Division: the process by which a cell reproduces itself; it is normal and essential for growth and healing of tissues
Mitosis: the segregation and separation of duplicated chromosomes during cell division
Sister Chromatid: one or more identical DNA molecules that make up a duplicated chromosome following DNA replication
Centromere: the specialized region of a chromosome where the sister chromatids are joined
Cytokiness: the physical division of a cell into two daughter cells
Meiosis: A specialized type of cell division that generates unique haploid gametes. Generates sex cells.
Gamete: specialized reproductive cells that carry one copy of each chromosome, sperm are male gametes, egg are female gametes
Haploid: having only one copy of every chromosome
Cancer: unregulated cell division; cells divide inappropriately and accumulate, in some instances forming a tumor
Chemotherapy: the treatment of cancer by the use of chemicals
Energy is the capacity to do work, cellular work includes building complex molecules and moving substances in and out of the cell.
Chemical Energy: potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules (Food)
Potential Energy: stored energy (Food)
Kinetic Energy: the energy of motion or movement, (muscle movement, digestion breaks down food and releases energy)
Heat: the kinetic energy generated by random movements of molecules or atoms (transfer of energy from food to muscle to environment
Autotroph: plants are autotrophs, they capture energy from the sunlight through photosynthesis
Heterotroph: consumes to stay alive
Photosynthesis: the process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to make energy rich molecules using carbon dioxide and water
Chemical formula for photosynthesis looks like:
6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2
Plants take sunlight and make sugars, glucose sugar, chemical energy.
The glucose sugar goes to:
Chloroplast: the organelle in the plant cell where photosynthesis occurs
Sunlight has Photons: packets of light energy, each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy
A photon is both a wave and a particle, a packet of light that is in motion
Light Energy: the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation
Chlorophyll: The pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photos of light energy during photosynthesis
ATP, Adenosinetriphosphate: The molecules that cells use to power energy-requiring functions
Carbon Fixation: the conversion of inorganic carbon CO2 into organic forms, sugars
Thylakoid: where light dependent reactions happen, Calvin Cycle,
Calvin cycle: is the set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis. The cycle is light-independent because it takes place after the energy has been captured from sunlight
Plant products: glucose, fatty acid, glycerol
Algae: photosynthetic protist
Protist: is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus
Biofuel: a fuel derived directly from living matter. Algae produce biofuel
Diatom: phytoplankton, a single-celled alga that has a cell wall of silica. Many kinds are planktonic, and extensive fossil deposits have been found
Ernst Haeckel: German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, 1834 to 1919