WHAT IS IN THE CELL? ORGANELLES
Where DNA Lives
signs of life
CHAPTER 2: ELEMENTS OF LIFE
Five functional traits of life, pg 23:
Growth: An increase in the organism's size as the number of cell making up the organism increases.
Reproduction: the process of producing new organisms, offspring are similar but not necessarily identical to their parents in general structure, function, and properties.
Homeostasis: organisms maintain a stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes.
Sense and respond to stimuli: organisms respond to stimuli in many ways, they may move toward a food source r away from a threatening predator.
Obtain and use energy: all living beings require an input of energy to power their activities. organisms obtain energy from food (which they either produce themselves or consume from the environment). Chemical reactions convert that energy into usable forms. The sum total of all these reactions is metabolism.
DNA Replication Words
Messenger RNA (mRNA): RNA copy of an original DNA sequence made during
Transcription: the first stage of gene expression, during which cells produce molecules of messenger RNA (mRNA) from the instruction encoded within genes
Translation: the second stage of gene expression. Translation 'reads' mRNA sequences and assembles the corresponding amino acids to make proteins.
RNA Polymerase: the enzyme that accomplishes transcription. RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a complementary strand or RNA,
Ribosome: the cellular machinery that assembles protens during the process of translation.
Codon: a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
Genes Have Two Parts
Regulatory Sequence: the part of a gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of protein produced.
Coding Sequence: The part of the gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, Coding sequences determine the identity, shape and function of proteins.
Types of bonds: