More on how our immune system works
We do have some antibiotic resistant bacteria, one of the most notable is Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
MRSA sickens around 94,000 people per year, and kills about 19,000
Bacteria was covered back in chapter 14, lets go to page 274
This staph infection can be transferred through
Cellulitis (sel-u-LIE-tis) is a common, potentially serious bacterial skin infection. The affected skin appears swollen and red and is typically painful and warm to the touch.
Cellulitis usually affects the skin on the lower legs, but it can occur in the face, arms and other areas.
Cellulitis occurs when bacteria,
most commonly streptococcus and staphylococcus, enter through a crack or break in your skin. The incidence of a more serious staphylococcus infection called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing.
Antibiotics: are chemicals that either kill bacteria or slow their growth interfering with the function of essential bacterial cell structures.
Bacteria can become resistant because they are constantly mutating and adapting to pressure.
Antibacterial products are natural selection, we are selecting for the strongest bacteria by killing off the bacteria that is susceptible to the antibacterial chemicals.
Drainage of a cyst should be done by a doctor in a medical setting to prevent contamination and infection.
chapter 29 is on the immune system
Immune system: a system of cells and tissues that acts to defend the body against foreign cells and infectious agents.
Immunity: The resistance to a given pathogen by the immune system
Pathogen: Infectious agent, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites
Virus: A virus is a biological agent that reproduces inside the cells of living hosts. When infected by a virus, a host cell is forced to produce thousands of identical copies of the original virus at an extraordinary rate.
Has a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein shell.
Page 586 shows how virus will enter a cell and use the cell to replicate.
Lymphocyte: specialized white blood cell
B Cells: a lymphocyte not processed by the thymus gland, and responsible for producing antibodies.
Thymus: where T Cells mature
T Cells: a lymphocyte of a type produced or processed by the thymus gland and actively participating in the immune response.
Helper T Cells: type of T cell that helps activate B cells
Cytotoxic T Cell: Type of T cell that destroys altered cells, including virally infected cell
Antigen: Molecule to which antibodies bind
Antibody: A protein produced by B cells that binds to antigens and either neutralized them or flags other cells to destroy pathogens
Memory cells: A long-lived B or T cells that is produced during the primary response that is rapidly activated in the secondary response
Primary Response: The adaptive response mounted the first time a particular antigen is encountered by the immune system
Secondary Response: Rapid and strong response mounted when a particular antigen is encountered by the immune system subsequent to the first encounter
Lymph nodes: small organs in the lymphatic system where B and T cells may encounter pathogens
Lymphocyte: specialized white blood cell of the immune system
Adaptive Immunity: A protective response mediated by lymphocytes, for long lasting immunity against specific pathogens
Cell-Mediated Immunity: Adaptive immunity that rids the body of altered infected cells
Innate Immunity: non-specific immunity such as barriers like skin and chemical barriers that are present from birth
Histamine: A molecule released by damaged tissue and during allergic reactions
Allergy: A misdirected immune response against environmental substances such as dust, pollen, and food
Autoimmune disease: A misdirected immune response in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells.
Inflammatory Response: an innate defense activated by local tissue damage
Phagocyte: Type of white blood cell, lives in tissues, responds to inflammatory response.
Neutrophil: Phagocytic cell in the circulation that plays and important role in inflammatory response
Natural Killer Cell: Type of white blood cell that destroys virally infected cells and tumor cells
Apoptosis: Programmed cell death
Interferon: Antiviral proteins produced by virally infected cells to protect other cells from becoming infected
Complement Proteins: Protein in blood that help destroy pathogens by coating or puncturing them
Vaccine: Preparation of killed or weakened microorganisms or viruses that is given to people or animals to generate a memory immune response
hiv destroys helper t cells
Medical prevention of hiv
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)
When taken consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in people who are at high risk by up to 92%. PrEP is much less effective if it is not taken consistently.
Click here for side effect information to consider:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a combination of antiretroviral drugs for people starting HIV treatment:
Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
We are adapting