How Proteins are Made
DNA is made of nucleic acids or base pairs that are coiled up into chromosomes, that live in the nucleus of the cell. DNA replicates to make more cells and codes for proteins.
DNA activities: Transcription and then Translation
DNA Transcription and Translation Animation
DNA: is the molecule of heredity, common to all life forms, that is passed from parents to offspring. DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
DNA exists in the nuclei of most cells, DNA molecules are organized into structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of a single long DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. If a single DNA molecule were stretched out it would be 1 to 3 meters long
Nucleotides: the building blocks of DNA
Each has a sugar, a phosphate, and a base, one of four bases
Bases: A, T, C, and G
Thymine (T) Uracil in RNA (U)
The sequence is unique in each person
Double helix: the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together
Hydrogen bonds: or base pairing hold the strands together
Polymer: made up of building block molecules. Biopolymers made of monomers
Genetic Code: the nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.
DNA Profile: a visual representation of a person's unique DNA sequence
Genome: one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism.
Amino acids: The building blocks of proteins, there are 20 different amino acids
All amino acids have the same basic core structure but each also has a unique chemical side group. They bind together in linear chain, peptide chain.
Protein: A macromolecule made up of repeating sub-units known as amino acids, which determine the shape and function of a protein. Proteins play critical roles in organisms.
Gene: a sequence of DNA that contains the information to make at least one protein
Gene expression: the process of using DNA instructions to make proteins
Phenotype: the physical attributes of an organism including observable and internal, non observable traits
Alleles: alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences
Regulatory sequence: the part of the gene that determines the timing, amount, and location of a protein produced
Coding Sequence: part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein, identity, shape, and function of proteins.
WHAT IS IN THE CELL? ORGANELLES
Chloroplasts are in plants to photosinthesize.
Here are signs that something is alive:
Growth: An increase in the organism's size as the number of cells increase.
Reproduction: the process of producing new organisms, offspring are similar but not necessarily identical to their parents in general structure, function, and properties.
Homeostasis: organisms maintain a stable internal environment, even when the external environment changes.
Sense and respond to stimuli: organisms respond to stimuli in many ways, they may move toward a food source or away from a threatening predator.
Obtain and use energy: all living beings require an input of energy to power their activities. organisms obtain energy from food (which they either produce themselves or consume from the environment). Chemical reactions convert that energy into usable forms. The sum total of all these reactions is metabolism.
DNA Replication words:
Messenger RNA (mRNA): RNA copy of an original DNA sequence made during
Transcription: Transcription is the first step of DNA based gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Translation: the second stage of gene expression. Translation 'reads' mRNA sequences and assembles the corresponding amino acids to make proteins.
RNA Polymerase: the enzyme that accomplishes transcription. RNA polymerase copies a strand of DNA into a complementary strand or RNA,
Ribosome: the cellular machinery that assembles proteins during the process of translation. checks for a matching codon and anticodon.
Codon: a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acid
Anti-codon: the complementary side on tRNA that leads to release of an aminoacid
Peptide: a compound consisting of two or more amino acids linked in a chain
From DNA to Protein