December 2018 Final Exam worth 20% of the grade, 42 points, don't panic
1. What is a biomolecule? They are also called the four major classes of organic molecules.
2. Why do they (biomolecules) matter?
3. What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?
4. How does an enzyme help with digestion and metabolism?
5. Does an enzyme need to fit into a specific space or “doorway” to work? Our review calls it the lock and key model.
6. How do we maintain homeostasis?
7. What is osmosis? a. How water moves into a cell b. A protein c. A type of DNA strand d. The body’s ability to produce sweat
8. What does the figure below represent?
a. DNA b. RNA c. Protein d. Amino Acid
9. Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level.
In other words, we have groups of cells that make up organs, that make up bodies, all by working together and sharing energy.
How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions? (choose the best answer, for a biology exam)
a. Humans evolved thumbs only because burritos exist b. Cells in a body do different types of work by having shapes that help them do the work (hair cell vs skin cell) c. Veins are shaped like tunnels to transport nutrients d. B and C
10. The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules, a hydrophilic (likes water) phosphate head, and a hydrophobic (dislikes water) tail consisting of two fatty acid chains, this is what the cell membrane is made of.
It naturally allows non-polar particles (fat-soluble molecules) like oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to move down the concentration gradient: from high concentration to low concentration. Some proteins allow molecules in without needing to use energy because they are following the concentration gradient flow (high to low).
How does the cell membrane move particles up the concentration gradient/ from low concentration to high concentration?
a. enzymes b. active transport proteins in the cell membrane use energy, (ATP, cell energy) to move the molecule c. Mystical doorways with magical powers d. neurons
11. Cells multiply through mitosis and meiosis, what is the difference?
12. What is a haploid cell? How is it different from a diploid cell?
13. How do organisms grow and develop?
14. What is a stem cell? a. A cell that only exists in plants b. A cell that can turn into many different types of cells c. A blood cell d. All of the above
15. How can stem cell therapy change medicine in the near future?
16. In botany, a stoma, also called a stomata, is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
They will help the plant stay cool and hydrated in the heat of summer by holding water in, that are the stoma doing for plants?
a. Maintain homeostasis in the plant b. Absorb water c. Attract pollinators d. Removing waste
17. What do DNA and RNA stand for?
a. Donuts with apples and river news updates b. Do not adapt and really neat antiques c. deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid d. None of the above
18. DNA is made of nucleotides. What are the four different nucleotides?
a. Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine b. Tomato, cacao, apple, guava c. Tyrosine, Cytonine, Alabasternine, Goosefeathernine d. None of these
19. What is an example of an input and output of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy? a. Plants absorbing light to make sugars through photosynthesis b. Animals eating food and digesting it c. Plankton photosynthesizing and being the base of the entire food chain of the planet d. All of the above
20. The initial source of energy for all organisms is the ________________.
21. What do mushrooms do?
a. Decompose b. Absorb petroleum c. Replacewood, disposable items, packing materials d. All of the above
22. What is this?
a. A trophic level pyramid and It shows the position of an organism in a food chain, this is how matter and energy move through an ecosystem b. A food pyramid c. A chart of what we need to eat more of d. None of the above
23. Which organisms produce their own food?
a. Autotrophs b. Heterotrophs c. Primary consumers d. Secondary consumers
24. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
a. People should be exercising 3 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes b. Aerobic means it needs oxygen while anaerobic does not need oxygen c. Some molecules like to lift weight d. One is in animals while the other is in plants
25. What happens to ecosystems when the environment changes?
a. All living beings try their best to adapt and survive, they might move to another area if possible, they try a different food source and adopt orphaned babies b. Nothing, it all just evolves and changes really fast, it is the miracle of life c. Extinction d. All of the above
26. When we breathe out we release carbon dioxide (CO2), plants use CO2 to make sugars through photosynthesis and release Oxygen (O2) in the process, we need oxygen to live. This is part of the carbon cycle.
Which human activity would have the greatest impact of the carbon cycle?
a. Deforestation b. Gold mining c. Petroleum extraction d. Fracking
27. True or False: Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between 50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere.
28. Which of the following could increase conservation of water in New Mexico?
a. Improve systems of agricultural irrigation b. Reduce the amount of land covered by grass and lawns c. Reduce residential water use d. All of the above
29. How do we connect art and biology? What are some ways in which we do this and what are some ways in which we could do this?
30. We have technology that can save the planet, do you think we will start using it more? What are some changes that you see in the near future?