Global Climate Change is somewhat normal
Vostok ice core samples: p 465. Ice cores contain layers of ice harboring gas bubbles that reveal the composition of the ancient atmosphere.
Cryospheric Science: is the interdisciplinary study of permafrost, snow and ice, primarily on the surface of the Earth, but also on other planets and moons. Thecryosphere is an integral part of the climate system, and is investigated with techniques from geophysics, meteorology and hydrology.
Natural processes, phenomena to consider
We happen to be in an interglacial period–between ice ages. The earth’s orbit is complex, and slight variations in its tilt can cause temperatures in the Northern hemisphere to decrease.
The patterns are complex–there are three ‘cycles’ according to Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian scientist who figured these out as a prisoner of war during WWI.
Milutin Milanković was a mathematician, astronomer, climatologist, geophysicist, civil engineer and popularizer of science. Milanković gave two fundamental contributions to global science.
Baking soda/ carbon capture plant
Drinking Ocean Water
eco-metropolis and urbanization
Sustainability: the use of the Earth's resources a way that will not permanently destroy r deplete them. Living withing the limits of the Earth's biocapacity.
Biocapacity: the amount of the Earth's biological productive area-- cropland, pasture, forest, fisheries--- what is available to provide resources to support life.
Ecological Footprint: a measure of how much land and water area required to supply the resources a person or population consumes and to absorb the wastes it produces
Natural Resources: raw materials that are obtained from the Earth and are considered valuable
There are many forms of renewable energy.
current forms of energy
The primary sources of energy in the environment include fuels like
All primary source fuels except biomass are non-renewable.
Primary sources also include renewable sources:
how electricity is made
where do we get coal?
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator
carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous cycles
All consumer and most other aerosol products made or sold in the U.S. now use propellants—such as hydrocarbons and compressed gases like nitrous oxide—that do not deplete the ozone layer. Aerosol spray cans produced in some other countries might still utilize CFCs, but they cannot legally be sold in the U.S.
Were used in Refrigerators and Air Conditioners.
what is going on with bees?
Keystone Species: species on which other species depend, and whose removal has a dramatic impact on the community.
Community: a group of interacting populations of different species living together in the same area.
Pollination: the transfer of pollen from male to female plant structures so that fertilization can occur.
Pollen: small, thick walled plant structures that contain cells that will develop into sperm.
Nectar: sugary bait to attract pollinators
Stamen: the male reproductive structure of a flower, made of a filament and an anther.
Pistil: the female reproductive structure of a flower, made up of a stigma, style, and ovary.
Seed: the embryo of a plant,together with a startling supply of food, all encased in a protective covering.
Bees are moved around the country for crop pollination
colony collapse disorder causes
Neonicotinoids are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. In the 1980s Shell and in the 1990s Bayer started work on their development.
Types of neonicotinoids
Effects on people:
city bee keeping
bee venom biology
Bee-Friendly Garden Flowers
Wolves affect ecology
Populations of animals interact: wolves affect deer population, deer affect plant population deer also affect tick population. Predatory birds such as owls affect rodent population and rodent population affects tick population.
Less deer/ less rodents means less Lyme Disease
Climate change also affects population interactions, a later start of winter can lead ticks to kill a moose, even without disease
Population: A group of organisms of the same species living and interacting in a particular area
Ecology: the study of the interactions between organisms, and between organisms and their non-living environment.
Community: interacting populations of different species in a defined habitat
Ecosystem: the living organisms in an area and the nonliving components of the environment with which they interact.
Distribution pattern: the way organisms are distributed in a space. Depends on resources and interactions with other members of the population.
Growth Rate: the difference between the birth rate of a given population and the death rate of a given population, also known as the rate of natural increase.
Exponential Growth: the unrestricted growth of a population increasing at a constant growth rate.
Carrying Capacity: The maximum population size that a given environment or habitat can support given its food supply or other natural resources.
Logistic Growth: A pattern of growth that starts off fast and then levels off as the population reaches the carrying capacity of the environment.
factors that affect population growth
The Fibonacci sequence begins with the numbers 0 and 1. ...
0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144
Fibonacci sequence first appears in the book Liber Abaci (1202) by Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci.
Fibonacci considers the growth of an idealized (biologically unrealistic) rabbit population, assuming that:
A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
Population Growth Algorithm is a forecasting Algorithm that may be used for predicting the Population Growth
Population Density: the number of organisms per given area.
Density-Dependent Factor: factor whose influence on population size and growth depends on the number and crowding of individuals in the population
(for example, predation)
Density Independent Factor: chance, a factor that can influence a population size and growth regardless of the numbers and crowding within a population (weather)
Biotic Factors: refers to the living components of an environment
Abiotic Factors: refers to nonliving components of an environment
human migration and evolution
Haplogroup is a genetic population group of people who share a common ancestor on the patriline or the matriline.
A maternal haplogroup is a family of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that traces back to a single common ancestor. Your maternal haplogroup assignment is based on your mitochondrial DNA, which you inherited from your mother.
In human genetics, the Mitochondrial Eve is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all currently living humans, the most recent woman from whom all living humans descend in an unbroken line purely through their mothers, and through the mothers of those mothers, back until all lines converge on one woman.
Estimates on the age of this split ranged at around 150,000 years ago
that theory on human evolution
UV and skin tone
Could Increasing the Melanin In Your Skin Protect You From Cancer?
movement of people TO THE AMERICAS from all over the world
Trans Atlantic Currents move ships from West Africa to the area where we find the Olmec Civilization and other Ancient Civilizations
Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes, the two domains of prokaryotic life.
There are many types of bacteria:
Some but not all bacteria are pathogens: a disease causing agent
Some bacteria are purely beneficial and help with symbiosis: the relationship in which two different organisms live together, often interdependently.
The other domain of prokaryotic life, tend to live in extreme environments
Grouped according to where they live (pg 371):
Archaea in hydrothermal vents:
The sea floor is an anaerobic environment, no oxygen
Evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms.
That prokaryotes ate a mitochondria and kept it around, some ate a chloroplast and became plants (pg. 391)
Endosymbiotic theory deals with the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts, two eukaryotic organelles that have bacteria characteristics. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are believed to have developed from symbiotic bacteria, specifically alpha-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria, respectively.
Mitochondria: an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae).
Mitochondria origin: The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.
SO Mitochondria and Chloroplasts were bacteria billions of years ago.
They have their own DNA
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have striking similarities to bacteria cells.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA): is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mitochondrial DNA is double-stranded like cellular DNA in prokaryotes. However it is circular and similar in size and structure to the single DNA loops found in prokaryotes like bacteria.
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts can no longer live outside the eukaryotic cell, and cells cannot live without mitochondria or chloroplasts because that is how they get ATP.
Over millions of years of evolution, mitochondria and chloroplasts have become more specialized and today they cannot live outside the cell.
They are now interdependent/codependent
Cells would only be able to obtain energy from anaerobic respiration (in the absence of oxygen)
So mitochondria helped get archaea out of the hydrothermal vents
Evidence obtained so far indicates that the Bacteria and Archaea diverged from a common ancestor about 3.7 billion years ago, and somewhat later the Archaea diverged from the lineage that would become the Eukarya.
Around 2 billion years ago, archaea and bacteria found a way to share genes or merge some of their material and a third kingdom of life, eukaryotes, was born.
Mitochondria know both aerobic and anaerobic respiration: When oxygen is present, the mitochondria will undergo aerobic respiration which leads to the Krebs cycle.
so plants, protists, fungi, and animals
A multi cellular eukaryote that has cell walls, carries out photosynthesis, and is adapted to living on land
Types of plants:
Vascular plant: plant with tissues that transport water and nutrients through the plants body. Xylem and Phloem.
The six main groups are: invertebrates, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles and fish.
Invertebrate: no spine
Arthropod: an invertebrate having a segmented body, a hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages
Exoskeleton: a hard external skeleton, usually made of chitin protein
Endoskeleton: a solid internal skeleton, found in many animals
Insect: a six-legged arthropod with three body segments, head, thorax and abdomen
Mammal: an animal with mammary glands and fur
Birds: a warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrate distinguished by the possession of feathers, wings, and a beak and (typically) by being able to fly.
Amphibians: a cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that comprises the frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. They are distinguished by having an aquatic gill-breathing larval stage followed (typically) by a terrestrial lung-breathing adult stage.
Reptiles: a cold-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that includes snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are distinguished by having a dry scaly skin and typically laying soft-shelled eggs on land.
Fish: a limbless cold-blooded vertebrate animal with gills and fins and living wholly in water.
The DIY Girls
Our planet is packed with diversity
Please take a look at page 350 in our book
most of the time evolution happens by animals splitting off from groups of other animals
Polar bears are most related to brown bears in Siberia
Convergent Evolution: when species that are not related develop similar adaptations, an examples is fish in cold places, fish avoid freezing by having proteins called glycoproteins, they work as an antifreeze.
This happens through independent episodes of natural selection, the fish with the proteins were able to survive the freeing water and were able to reproduce, passing on their genes that code for glycoproteins.
So both Arctic and Antarctic fish have this natural antifreeze even though they are not closely related.
phylogeny and taxonomy
Phylogeny: is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, how long ago they had a common ancestor
A Phylogenetic Tree: shows the relationships of common ancestry
Taxonomy: is how we classify the organism on a chart according to:
on page 352 we can see that a bird is more closely related to a crocodile than a lizard is
there was a common ancestor that split into crocodile, dinosaur and bird a long time after lizards started to show up in the fossil record. So there was a lizard that split off from the other lizards and then further split off into different types of animals.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation: is how species split off to fit a different niche
how we explore life in extreme environments with technology
Extremophiles occur in all three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
An extremophile is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth. In contrast, organisms that live in more moderate environments may be termed mesophiles or neutrophiles.
Not an exactly extremophile, but close:
They are not single cell prokaryotes like most extremophiles, but they are microscopic
Some prokaryotic diversity is found in the depths of the ocean
Chapter 18, pg 360 is about Lost City, exploring deep sea hydro thermal vents where some extremophiles live.
Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots.
Support unique ecosystems and their communities of organisms in the deep ocean.
Seawater interaction with volcanic rocks at near 400°C
40,000 different types of microbes have been identified in hydrothermal vents
Clusters of tube worms, limpets, mussels, and anemones were seen to inhabit cracks in the lava bed where mineral-rich, geothermally heated water 'vents' out.
WHAT DOES AN ENGINEER NEED TO CONSIDER TO DESIGN EQUIPMENT FOR DEEP SEA EXPLORATION?
On May 31, 2009, one hybrid vehicle—the Nereus—reached the deepest part of the ocean, the Mariana Trench. It dived 10,902 meters (6.8 miles) below the surface
wait, sea mining?
The deep seas are a treasure trove of valuable metals such as gold, silver, platinum, copper, cobalt, manganese, and zinc. And robots could be the key to accessing these treasures.
Most of the mining possibilities are centered in the Pacific Ocean, including the Central and Eastern Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea. While the waters there are deep – around 3,400 feet – a robot could navigate there.
Canadian company Nautilus Minerals is currently developing a copper and gold mining program on the seafloor in Papua New Guinea that is planned to be operational in 2019. The robots it plans to deploy include two kinds of cutting robots and a collecting robot to gather the materials.
They say that they care about the ecosystem: http://cares.nautilusminerals.com/IRM/content/default.aspx
robotics to explore the ocean
Robotics and deep sea exploration:
what does cobalt mining currently look like?
Cobalt is a brittle, hard, silver-grey transition metal with magnetic properties similar to those of iron (it is ferromagnetic).
Cobalt is used to build rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
alternatives to cobalt:
Battery researchers are moving to materials like manganese and iron.
there is quite a bit going on in the ocean
Let's Review that final
1. What is a biomolecule? They are also called the four major classes of organic
A biomolecule or biological molecule is one of Life's building blocks.
Examples are: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
Carbohydrates: short term energy storage: sugars, starch, and cellulose.
CHO (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen)
Lipids: fats, make cell membrane lipid bilayer, long term energy storage.
CHO (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen)
Proteins: chains of amino acids, Provide: structure, movement, muscle, hair, collagen,
CHONS (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur)
Nucleic Acids: store and transmit genetic information: DNA, RNA
DNA is a double helix
RNA is a singe strand
CHNOP (Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorous)
All nucleic acids are made up of the same building blocks (monomers),
the monomers are called "nucleotides."
Nucleotide: a compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group.
Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA.
The five monomers or nucleotides are: uracil, cytosine, thymine, adenine, and guanine
Nucleotides in DNA contain four different nitrogenous bases:
Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine.
RNA contains uracil, instead of thymine
6 elements needed for life: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Sulfur
2. Why do they (biomolecules) matter?
Biomolecules are essential for life, they are essential to some biological process such
as cell division, nutrient transport, or development.
Sugars in fruit, starch in roots (potatoes, yams), and cellulose in plants (celery)
Seed oils, plant oils, waxes ( the waxy cuticle that keeps plants from dehydrating)
Chitin: the protein that makes insect exoskeleton, crustacean shells, and mushrooms
Keratin: the protein in skin hair, nails
Enzymes: Amylase: found in saliva, breaks down starch molecules into
smaller glucose and maltose molecules
Nucleic Acids: DNA, RNA, instructions of how to make biomolecules that the
living being needs to do their work
3. What is the difference between an atom and a molecule?
The protons and the neutrons make up the center of the atom called the nucleus
and the electrons fly around above the nucleus in a small cloud.
A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest
fundamental unit of a chemical compound
Types of bonds:
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that
involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron(s) between
atoms and is a type of chemical bond that
generates two oppositely charged ions. Usually found in Metals.
A polar bond is a covalent bond between two atoms where the
electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed.
This causes the molecule to have a slight electrical dipole moment
where one end is slightly positive and the other is slightly negative.
Carbon is ideal for sharing electrons - forming covalent bonds
4. How does an enzyme help with digestion and metabolism?
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and speed up metabolism.
The effectiveness of an enzyme can be affected by temperature, pH, concentration
of enzyme, and concentration of substrate
Types of Enzymes:
If a word ends with -ase, it is probably an enzyme
5. Does an enzyme need to fit into a specific space or “doorway” to work?
Our review calls it the lock and key model.
Enzymes are specific. Only molecules with the correct shape can fit into the
enzyme. Just like only one key can open a lock, only one type of enzyme can speed
up a specific reaction. This is called the lock and key model.
6. How do we maintain homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between
interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Five body functions that monitor homeostasis are: temperature, glucose, blood
pressure, toxins, and pH.
Examples from class:
Examples in humans:
7. What is osmosis?
a. How water moves into a cell
b. A protein
c. A type of DNA strand
d. The body’s ability to produce sweat
Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a more concentrated solution, up a concentration gradient.
Osmotic Balance: Osmoregulation controls this balance of water/salt concentrations.
Salts go from high concentration to low concentration, salt wants to get in the water
Water moves from low solute to high solute, water wants to dilute the salt
8. What does the figure below represent?
d. Amino Acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid: a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms
Double Helix: two chains that coil around each other form a double helix carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
9. Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level.
In other words, we have groups of cells that make up organs, that make up bodies,
all by working together and sharing energy.
How do the structures of organisms enable life’s functions?
(choose the best answer, for a biology exam)
a. Humans evolved thumbs only because burritos exist
b. Cells in a body do different types of work by having shapes that help them do the
work (hair cell vs skin cell)
c. Veins are shaped like tunnels to transport nutrients
d. B and C
10. The phospholipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
molecules, a hydrophilic (likes water) phosphate head, and a hydrophobic (dislikes
water) tail consisting of two fatty acid chains, this is what the cell membrane is made
It naturally allows non-polar particles (fat-soluble molecules) like oxygen (O2) and
carbon dioxide (CO2) to move down the concentration gradient: from high
concentration to low concentration. Some proteins allow molecules in without needing
to use energy because they are following the concentration gradient flow (high to low).
How does the cell membrane move particles up the concentration gradient/ from low
concentration to high concentration?
b. active transport proteins in the cell membrane use energy,
(ATP, cell energy) to move the molecule
c. Mystical doorways with magical powers
Nutrient Transport: The blood circulatory system (cardiovascular system) delivers nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. It consists of the heart and the blood vessels running through the entire body.
The arteries carry blood away from the heart; the veins carry it back to the heart.
Fats and fat soluble nutrients can move directly across the lipid membrane.
Water, gasses, and other very small molecules can diffuse through the pores of the cell.
Active Transport: Moving against a gradient. The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy (ATP).
ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate, money in the cell world, molecular unit of currency,
organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells
Diffusion: is a spontaneous movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Facilitated diffusion: Stuff getting through the cell membrane through a specialized door. The passive movement of molecules along their concentration gradient, guided by the presence of another molecule – usually an integral membrane protein forming a pore or channel. May or may not require energy from ATP.
11. Cells multiply through mitosis and meiosis, what is the difference?
Mitosis: The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, typically consisting
of four stages, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, Some textbooks list five, breaking prophase into an early phase (called prophase) and a late phase (called
prometaphase). Normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains
a complete copy of the parental chromosomes.
Mitosis makes two cells
Stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
OK, so PPMAT...
In early prophase, the cell starts to break down some structures and build others up,
setting the stage for division of the chromosomes.
In late prophase (sometimes also called prometaphase), the mitotic spindle begins to
capture and organize the chromosomes.
In metaphase, the spindle has captured all the chromosomes and lined them up at the
middle of the cell, ready to divide.
In anaphase, the sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled towards
opposite ends of the cell.
In telophase, the cell is nearly done dividing, and it starts to re-establish its normal
structures as cytokinesis (division of the cell contents) takes place.
Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm to form two new cells
A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Cells move from meiosis I to meiosis II without copying their DNA. Meiosis II is a shorter and simpler process than meiosis I, and you may find it helpful to think of meiosis II as “mitosis for haploid cells."
Haploid: half the chromosomes
Prophase II: chromosomes condense and the nuclear envelope breaks down
Metaphase II: the chromosomes line up individually along the metaphase plate.
Anaphase II: the sister chromatids separate and are pulled towards opposite poles of the cell.
Telophase II: nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense
Cytokinesis: splits the chromosome sets into new cells, forming the final products of meiosis: four haploid cells
12. What is a haploid cell? How is it different from a diploid cell?
Haploid is the term used when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes.
A normal eukaryotic organism is composed of diploid cells, one set of chromosomes
from each parent. However, after meiosis, the number of chromosomes in gametes
Diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes. This is double the haploid
chromosome number. Each pair of chromosomes in a diploid cell is considered to be
one homologous chromosome set
13. How do organisms grow and develop?
Cell division and nutrient transport, metabolism
14. What is a stem cell?
a. A cell that only exists in plants
b. A cell that can turn into many different types of cells
c. A blood cell
d. All of the above
Cells become specialized through differentiation
15. How can stem cell therapy change medicine in the near future?
Organ transplant, regeneration of organs using stem cells
Embryonic stem cell: Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the
inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. Human
embryos reach the blastocyst stage 4–5 days post fertilization, at which time they
consist of 50–150 cells.
First we are a blastocyst:
Fertilization usually takes place in a fallopian tube that links an ovary to the uterus.
If the fertilized egg successfully travels down the fallopian tube and implants in the
uterus, an embryo starts growing.
The embryo usually reaches the uterine cavity about 5 or 6 days after fertilization.
Most embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that develop from eggs that
have been fertilized in vitro—in an in vitro fertilization clinic—and then donated for
research purposes with informed consent of the donors.
It is not generally considered ethical to use embryonic stem cells, you be the judge,
we also have somatic stem cells.
Pluripotent: capable of giving rise to several different cell types, can give rise to
all of the cell types that make up the body
Totipotent: cells can form all the cell types in a body, even placental cells.
Embryonic cells within the first couple of cell divisions after fertilization
are the only cells that are totipotent.
Multipotent: cells can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited
than pluripotent cells; adult stem cells are considered multipotent.
Somatic Stem Cell: Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues,
including brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels,
skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium,
and testis. They are thought to reside in a specific area of
each tissue (called a "stem cell niche").
Multiply by cell division to replenish dying cells and
regenerate damaged tissues.
16. In botany, a stoma, also called a stomata, is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves,
stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
They will help the plant stay cool and hydrated in the heat of summer by holding
water in, that are the stoma doing for plants?
a. Maintain homeostasis in the plant
b. Absorb water
c. Attract pollinators
d. Removing waste
17. What do DNA and RNA stand for?
a. Donuts with apples and river news updates
b. Do not adapt and really neat antiques
c. deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid
d. None of the above
18. DNA is made of nucleotides. What are the four different nucleotides?
a. Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, or Guanine
b. Tomato, cacao, apple, guava
c. Tyrosine, Cytonine, Alabasternine, Goosefeathernine
d. None of these
19. What is an example of an input and output of matter and the
transfer and transformation of energy?
a. Plants absorbing light to make sugars through photosynthesis
b. Animals eating food and digesting it
c. Plankton photosynthesizing and being the base of the entire food chain of the planet
d. All of the above
20. The initial source of energy for all organisms is the _____Sun___________.
21. What do mushrooms do?
b. Absorb petroleum
c. Replacewood, disposable items, packing materials
d. All of the above
22. What is this?
a. A trophic level pyramid and It shows the position of an organism in a food chain,
this is how matter and energy move through an ecosystem
b. A food pyramid
c. A chart of what we need to eat more of
d. None of the above
23. Which organisms produce their own food?
c. Primary consumers
d. Secondary consumers
Auto -Self, troph-Make, one being makes without needing another (makes cells)
Hetero- Two/other, troph- Make, need two beings to make/ grow/ live
Primary consumer: Insect eating grass, or a fish eating algae, a vegetarian being
Secondary Consumer: whoever eats the insect or the fish
Plants are autotrophs, they make new cells using the Sun and CO2 from the air, except those carnivorous plants, they do both... those mixotrophs
24. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
a. People should be exercising 3 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes
b. Aerobic means it needs oxygen while anaerobic does not need oxygen
c. Some molecules like to lift weight
d. One is in animals while the other is in plants
Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration: no oxygen used, examples: alcohol fermentation, lactic acid fermentation and in decomposition of organic matter.
25. What happens to ecosystems when the environment changes?
a. All living beings try their best to adapt and survive, they might move to
another area if possible, they try a different food source and adopt orphaned babies
b. Nothing, it all just evolves and changes really fast, it is the miracle of life
d. All of the above
26. When we breathe out we release carbon dioxide (CO2), plants use CO2 to make
sugars through photosynthesis and release Oxygen (O2) in the process,
we need oxygen to live. This is part of the carbon cycle.
Which human activity would have the greatest impact of the carbon cycle?
b. Gold mining
c. Petroleum extraction
Also hurting algae and plankton
27. True or False: Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between
50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere.
28. Which of the following could increase conservation of water in New Mexico?
a. Improve systems of agricultural irrigation
b. Reduce the amount of land covered by grass and lawns
c. Reduce residential water use
d. All of the above
29. How do we connect art and biology? What are some ways in which we do this
and what are some ways in which we could do this?
Biology is full of art inspiration, there are free art supplies in this world as long as we
source them in a sustainable way. Biology can teach us about resource sharing and
egalitarian communities through symbiotic relationships.
30. We have technology that can save the planet, do you think we will start using it more?
What are some changes that you see in the near future?
Biofuels, solar energy wood may be replaced by mycellium (mushroom) molded
materials, stem cell research, 3d printing with bioplastics, the use of hemp to make
textile, fuel, paper, food, cooking oil, bioplastics, biomimicry for architecture
and product design...
Thank you for reviewing!