Our planet is packed with diversity
Please take a look at page 350 in our book
most of the time evolution happens by animals splitting off from groups of other animals
Polar bears are most related to brown bears in Siberia
Convergent Evolution: when species that are not related develop similar adaptations, an examples is fish in cold places, fish avoid freezing by having proteins called glycoproteins, they work as an antifreeze.
This happens through independent episodes of natural selection, the fish with the proteins were able to survive the freeing water and were able to reproduce, passing on their genes that code for glycoproteins.
So both Arctic and Antarctic fish have this natural antifreeze even though they are not closely related.
phylogeny and taxonomy
Phylogeny: is the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, how long ago they had a common ancestor
A Phylogenetic Tree: shows the relationships of common ancestry
Taxonomy: is how we classify the organism on a chart according to:
on page 352 we can see that a bird is more closely related to a crocodile than a lizard is
there was a common ancestor that split into crocodile, dinosaur and bird a long time after lizards started to show up in the fossil record. So there was a lizard that split off from the other lizards and then further split off into different types of animals.
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation: is how species split off to fit a different niche
how we explore life in extreme environments with technology
Extremophiles occur in all three domains of life: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.
An extremophile is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth. In contrast, organisms that live in more moderate environments may be termed mesophiles or neutrophiles.
Not an exactly extremophile, but close:
They are not single cell prokaryotes like most extremophiles, but they are microscopic
Some prokaryotic diversity is found in the depths of the ocean
Chapter 18, pg 360 is about Lost City, exploring deep sea hydro thermal vents where some extremophiles live.
Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots.
Support unique ecosystems and their communities of organisms in the deep ocean.
Seawater interaction with volcanic rocks at near 400°C
40,000 different types of microbes have been identified in hydrothermal vents
Clusters of tube worms, limpets, mussels, and anemones were seen to inhabit cracks in the lava bed where mineral-rich, geothermally heated water 'vents' out.
WHAT DOES AN ENGINEER NEED TO CONSIDER TO DESIGN EQUIPMENT FOR DEEP SEA EXPLORATION?
On May 31, 2009, one hybrid vehicle—the Nereus—reached the deepest part of the ocean, the Mariana Trench. It dived 10,902 meters (6.8 miles) below the surface
wait, sea mining?
The deep seas are a treasure trove of valuable metals such as gold, silver, platinum, copper, cobalt, manganese, and zinc. And robots could be the key to accessing these treasures.
Most of the mining possibilities are centered in the Pacific Ocean, including the Central and Eastern Manus Basin near Papua New Guinea. While the waters there are deep – around 3,400 feet – a robot could navigate there.
Canadian company Nautilus Minerals is currently developing a copper and gold mining program on the seafloor in Papua New Guinea that is planned to be operational in 2019. The robots it plans to deploy include two kinds of cutting robots and a collecting robot to gather the materials.
They say that they care about the ecosystem: http://cares.nautilusminerals.com/IRM/content/default.aspx
robotics to explore the ocean
Robotics and deep sea exploration:
what does cobalt mining currently look like?
Cobalt is a brittle, hard, silver-grey transition metal with magnetic properties similar to those of iron (it is ferromagnetic).
Cobalt is used to build rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
alternatives to cobalt:
Battery researchers are moving to materials like manganese and iron.
there is quite a bit going on in the ocean